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Calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ of each of the following solutions:(a) $2.8 \times 10^{-4} \mathrm{M} \mathrm{Ba}(\mathrm{OH})_{2},$ (b) $5.2 \times 10^{-4} \mathrm{M} \mathrm{HNO}_{3}$.

a. 10.75b. 3.28

Chemistry 102

Chapter 15

Acids and Bases

Liquids

Carleton College

University of Central Florida

University of Kentucky

Lectures

03:07

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure. As such, a liquid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, gas and plasma). A liquid is made up of tiny vibrating particles of matter, such as atoms, held together by intermolecular bonds. Water is, by far, the most common liquid on Earth. Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the shape of a container. Most liquids resist compression, although others can be compressed. Unlike a gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every space of a container, and maintains a fairly constant density. A distinctive property of the liquid state is surface tension, leading to wetting phenomena.

04:38

A liquid is a state of matter in which a substance changes its shape easily and takes the form of its container, and in which the substance retains a constant volume independent of pressure. As a result of this, a liquid does not maintain a definite shape, and its volume is variable. The characteristic properties of a liquid are surface tension, viscosity, and capillarity. The liquid state has a definite volume, but it also has a definite surface. The volume is uniform throughout the whole of the liquid. Solids have a fixed shape and a definite volume, but they do not have a definite surface. The volume of a solid does not vary, but the volume of a liquid may vary.

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All right. So we got to find the pH with a 2.8 times in the negative for Moeller of B A O H. Two. My first step here. You gotta be aware. You have to. Oh, ages. That means for every one mole of being a orange, too, you're going to have two moles of O h. Negative or hydroxide. So if we want to make sure we have the correct hydroxide concentration, we need to take that number, multiply by two. And if you do that, you'll get 5.6 times 10 to the negative four as you're high Dirac side concentration. All right, so we got you to care that first. So now we can go on to our the constant if we're gonna figure out the protein concentration we got to remember. Proton concentration times hydroxide concentration equals the iron constant. I on constant of water. And that is one time scent of the negative 14. Before we plug in our numbers, let's but ranges to solve for, um, each plus, So we're getting rid of the, uh, hydroxide concentration. So it'll go over there so that about it's gonna make that red. Yeah, that'll go away. All right. So what do you left with Proton? Concentration will be equal to K W over. Oh, age negative concentration. So let's just plug in the numbers now. One Prideaux times 10 to the negative. 14 Do you find it by? And that's where we put in that number. 5.6 times. 10 to the negative four. Okay, so what is that equal when you divide it? One divided by 5.6 to get pretty long number. Let's just round it. We'll get we'll do like some four digits of 17.1786 and over against times. 10. It's negative. 14 minus negative. Four. So I wanted that Trib you up, but to the negative 10. Now that's not a proper scientific notation, but it's not a final answer. Song is not our final answer. We could just leave it that way because now we know the, uh we know this part, which is the proton castration. Now we gotta change that to Pete H. So how do you do that? Well, always remember what Ph is. It's the negative log of the protein concentration, which is what we have So, Pete, Age. Um it's plug that in zero 0.1786 times tend to the negative. So So you need the log button on your calculator. If you do the log of that number, it should leave you with a negative 10.74 Yadi Yadi yada. Let's just round it to the 100th place and we get 10.75 Now, all we have left to do is negate that Your final answer is positive. 10 points, seven by There you go. So let her be is gonna be a lot easier. I'll show you why you have 5.2 times sending the negative four Moeller h n 03 nitric acid. Well, that's actually equal to our hydrogen ion concentration. Um, which means this is a lot easier because now we can just jump right to that. PH equals a negative log of hydrogen ion concentration. We don't gotta figure out the we're not going from hydroxide concentration this time, so you can just plug that right at so 5.2 times 10 to the negative four. So use that log button on your calculator. And what will that become? Um it's gonna be a negative 3.2 a, You know, a bunch of numbers, but you could just round it to the 100th place again. And that should be good enough. Which means your final answer. PH uh, let's make a green 3.28 So there you go. All right, so that's that was a good problem. We found pH from my drugs like concentration, and then we found it from proton concentration.

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