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Describe the characteristics of an $s$ orbital, a $p$ orbital, and a $d$ orbital. Which of the following orbitals do not exist: $1 p, 2 s, 2 d, 3 p, 3 d, 3 f, 4 g ?$

$1 p, 2 d, 3 f, 4 g$ do not exist

Chemistry 101

Chapter 7

Quantum Theory and the Electronic Structure of Atoms

Electronic Structure

University of Central Florida

Drexel University

Brown University

Lectures

04:49

In chemistry and physics, electronic structure is the way the electrons of an atom are arranged in relationship to the nucleus. It is determined by the subshells the electrons are bound to, which are in turn determined by the principal quantum number ("n") and azimuthal quantum number ("l"). The electrons within an atom are attracted to the protons in the nucleus of that atom. The number of electrons bound to the nucleus is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus, which is called the atomic number ("Z"). The electrons are attracted to the nucleus by this mutual attraction and are bound to the nucleus. The electrons within an atom are attracted to each other and this attraction determines the electron configuration. The electron configuration is described by the term symbol, which is the letter used to identify each subshell.

16:45

In physics, the wave–particle duality is the concept that every object or process, no matter how large or how small, behaves as both a wave and a particle. The wave–particle duality is one of the central concepts in quantum mechanics.

02:40

Describe the characteristi…

01:37

Which of the following orb…

01:36

Using s, $p, d$ notations,…

03:01

State which of the followi…

so more time about quantum numbers. There are four different quantum occurs. I like to think about them as in electrons address. So we have N She's the first quarter number. This is the size of the orbital. Okay, I also like to think this of this as the country that the electron if you were to say the actual lives. Okay, 2nd 1 is the l is and this is weird and see the shape of the orbital. Okay, so you can think of this as the state that the electron leaves them. 3rd 1 is m sub l For now, we're gonna We're only gonna talk about these three, but the 4th 20 scrub is m sub s. So this is how many sub orbital's there are or sub shells. And so this is from negative l to l. That's how you know how many there are. Okay. And so this would be like the city. So So when we know the shapes So if l equals zero Oh, me this color, If you know that, please, If l equals zero, you know that that is an s orbital. Okay, so a sphere l is equal to one we know that that is a P orbital, which looks like a dumbo. If l is equal to two, you know that that is a D or Bill, which we consider a double dumb bell. Look, something like this. And just imagine, of course, these air all three d. Now, for a certain orbital shapes, we have to have enough space to make that shape. So, for instance, and the question it asked which of these do not exist? Okay, it as one p to S two d three p two d or three d three f and four g. So the reason we can't have a few of these is because we don't have enough space to actually make that shape. We have to be a certain distance away from the We have to have a certain number of electrons and might have a certain distance away from the nucleus. So in this case, one Pete, so one p does not exist because we need that we need end to equal at least to so and needs to be greater than or equal to to in order to have a P orbital, which is the Dumbo two s does exist just like and an end of any side and one and 21 asked two s three s. All of those All of those exist is the s orbital. This is a sphere is the most simple. So two d two d does not exist because the double dumb bell needs to have even more space. So we would say so. End has to be greater than or equal to three in order to be able to have enough space and enough electrons to make the D orbital three p since we looked at over here and must be greater than or equal to two p 32 we know that since it is obviously greater than two that this is every This is a a true statement three d. We look over here at the rule we just rode out and is greater than or equal to three. Okay, it's equal to three. So that is a true statement. Three f So an F orbital and the lowest F orbital is four is four n. So we know that end must be greater than we're equal to four. So it can't. So this is not I'm going to make it very clear these three so far do not exist, okay? And four g f N g r. Two other shapes that are very complicated. And I'm not gonna be able to draw. I'm not able to draw on to D. But there, basically building on this shape, this dumb, bell like concept. So when Fergie and must be greater than or equal to five. So since four is less than five and that's the minimum, we know that that is, it does not. So the answer would be one p two d three f and four g do not exist.

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