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Determine the formal charge of each element in the following:(a) $\mathrm{HCl}$(b) $\mathrm{CF}_{4}$(c) $\mathrm{PCl}_{3}$(d) $\mathrm{PF}_{5}$

a) Thus, in HCl, the formal charge on both $\mathrm{H}$ and $\mathrm{Cl}$ atom is $[0]$b) Thus, in CF_{4} , \text { the formal charge on } C and $F$ atom is $[0]$c) Thus, in $\mathrm{PCl}_{3}$ ; the $\mathrm{P}$ and $\mathrm{Clatom}$ has formal charge is $[0]$d) Thus, in $\mathrm{PF}_{5}$ , ithe $\mathrm{P}$ and Fatom has formal charge is $[0]$

Chemistry 101

Chapter 7

Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry

Chemical Bonding

Molecular Geometry

University of Central Florida

Rice University

University of Kentucky

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Here the question is determined the formal charge of each element in the following. Now, what is the formal charge? So the formal charge is the electric charge actually, for my charge is the charge over the atom in and formal charge can be calculated by 1 formula? That is equal to first total number of valence electron electron of the atom minus non bonding electrons non bonding electron minus bonding electron electrons divided by 2. By this we can calculate the formal charge. So this is the formula we have to remember. First, 1 is c, so first we are writing the louis structure and for the lewis structure. We know that total valence electron that is equal to 1 plus 7 total valence electron will be 8 in case of h, h c, a single bond for the formation of this bond 2 electrons are used and the remaining electrons are 6. Now these 6 electrons. We are putting here to complute the rock it. This should be the structure of c now in this structure. What is the formal charge at hydrogen and what is the formal charge at chlorine that we have to calculate so for the hydrogen ween electron is 1 minus non bonding. No electrons are non bonding electrodes here, so 0 can write and bonding electrons 2 divided by 2. That is equal to 1, so minus 1 total is equal to 0. So at hydrogen, the formal charge is 0 at chlorine. Total 7 electrons minus non bonding electron. That is, total sex here and bonding electron divided by 2, so 2 divided by 2. That is equal to 1 and this whole should be equal to 0. So at hydrogen, the formal charge is 0 and that chlorine alcides equal to 0 point now come to b b is c, f, 4 c, f, 4 total valence, electron, falois structure, c. F, 4. Total valence electron is 4 and plus 747 multiplied by 4 should be equal to 28 point, so total vince electron will be here: 32 electrons, 32 electrons and simple structure single bond with all florineso fo, a bonds 8 electrons are used and remaining electrons are 24 latron. So these 24 electrons around the florin 1234567891011 to 13141516171819101222324 point all the 24 electrons are used and by this the structure of c f 4 is complete. Now we have to calculate the formal charge, so formal charge of carbon should be 4 valence, electron first 4. Minus non bonding electrons no non bonding electrons here, so we can write 0 and minus bonding electrons 4 bonding electrons total 8 bonding electrons 8 divided by 2. That is equal to 4, so this should be equal to 0. So at carbon the charge formal charge is 0 and at hydrogen the formal charge should be at hydrogen, not hydrogen. It is the fine so that florine, the formal judge, is valence. Electrons 7 minus non bonding, electrons total 6. Any florin you can see 6 electrons. Are there minus bonding electron is 1.2 electrons 2 divided by 2, that is equal to 1, so it should be equal to c. So all fluorine should have 0 formal charge same conditions, so 0 formal judge at all florine and the carbon should have again 0. So these are the following: charges of c: f. 4 now come to p c: l 3 c- that is p c l 3, so v c 3 is first louis structure, so it should be 5 plus valence electrons, total 21 point. This should be equal to 26 electrons, then 1 phosphorus forming bond with 3 chlorine, so for 3 bonds, 6 electrons are used. So remaining electrons are 20 point. This 20 electrons- we have to add here so 123456789101112131415161718 and 2- should be here with the phosphorus, so total to diatoms are used and after that, a structure of pcl less structure and what should be the formal charge. So for a phosphorus we can write. The formally charge should be valence. Electron 5 minus bonding non bonding electrons to non bonding. Electrons are 2, so we can write 2 here then minus bonding electron is 3. That means 6 electron 6 divided by 2. That should be 3, so this whole should be equal to 0. So 0 is the formal charge for phosphorus and for chlorine. The formal chaste should be 7 minus 66 non bonding electrons minus 1 bond 1 single bond, and there is 2 electron 2 divided by 2. That should be equal to 1, so formal chair should be equal to 0. So here also formal charge of phosphorus is 0 and all chlorine should have 0 formal charge now the last 1- and this is equal to p, f, 5 p, f, 5 d, total valence, electron 5 plus 35 point that is equal to 40 hetrons valence electrons. Then we can draw the structure and the structure should be here: phosphorus with 1 flowing here; second flooring, third flooring; fourth flooring and 5 fluorine, and after that 10 electrons are used so minus 10 for dissolved bonds and the remaining 30 electrons. We have to adjust to complete the it so 30 electrons. We are putting here 30 electrons, so to make it different. 2345678910111030141516. Pound 17893031222324252627282930 point. So all the 30 electrons are used to complete the option and by this structure, is complete here to calculate the formal structure of phosphorus, for this is 5 electrons valence electron minus non bonding electron is no non bonding electron here, so 0 minus total bonding electrons 2 Divided by 2, bonding electrons are total 55 bonds. That means 10 electrons 10 divided by 2. That should be equal to 5. So the formal structure, a formal charge, should be stero in case of phosphorus and for the florine we can calculate it should be 7. That is the valence electron minus 6 total non bonding electrons at each minus bonding electron 2 divided by 2. That is equal to 1. So this is again equal to 0, so everywhere in case of flowing this 0 formal judge and in case of phosphorus, it is a insemso. This is how we are calculating formal charge in case of all molecu.

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