State qualitatively the relationship between entropy and freedom of particle motion. Use this idea to explain why you will probably never (a) be suffocated because all the air near you has moved to the other side of the room; (b) see half the water in your cup of tea freeze while the other half boils.
Okay, so we're asked to determine the difference between spontaneous and instantaneous reactions. Or so one thing to notice that they are pleased to are they are. They are definitely related to each other, but they're not interchangeable. One is not equal to the other. So let's discuss this. Okay, so let's break down. Spontaneous. First spontaneous is cause Du Brey stones three main ideas. Entropy, randomness, energy and tribune randomness. They think they go hand in hand. Entropy is basically randomness. How random is thesis TEM or how, um, how many different combinations can you rearrange the system? Okay, because, um, as generally in the world, things try to break down things trying to not stay organized. If I had a if we have had a room organized one day, the next day might not be organized. That's justcause asked me, Go in and now do things to Homer. Do whatever things get things getting moved around. And it takes effort to make it clean again. And it just so much easier to just throw things on the floor because that's how naturally that's how they work and energy is. Energy isn't interesting part of this. So generally, when things are spontaneous. Um, it means that the energy that is used to push the reaction forward sometimes is often, uh, provided by the reaction itself. So, for example, in an explosion, right, Um, when it when? When you spark and like the top of gasoline. If you talk a spark a type of gasoline, which is generally a bad idea when you spot a tub of gasoline, that spark kicks off a reaction. It breaks him, ma, the bonds and the gasoline molecules and that, um, that breaking off those bonds releases energy and that energy gets transferred into more molecules of ghastly and it just expanded expands, it expands and the energy goes everywhere he explosion the whole nine years. That's the fun stuff. So So thing is, spontaneous reactions are not always instantaneous on. They often go hand in hand because it just seemed that way. But so if we had So, for example, if we had to, um, thes two rams here so this is non exit doesn't seem I grant, but it says you can see it is kind of a rabbit does have a slight inkling, and I did that intentionally. So say if you. This ball was pushed down this ramp, right? It would start rolling down, but pretty slowly. It will take some time. But this one over here. Did you push this? You push this ramp down, I can't select it. Uh, here we go. Uh, switch to surrender. It's very clear to see that it is a pretty steep fall. And you pushed her around, pushed the ball down, and it will go. It will fall naturally. And why is this the case? It's cause that there is in this environment, there is something that is driving the reaction forward. And in this case, that is gravity. So spontaneous reactions. They're only spontaneous in a certain environment. Okay, Um, so let's say if gasoline was really, really, really cold, it wouldn't spark. It went, um, they won't explode. If he sparked a tub of death thing. That was really, really, really cold. Then it wouldn't explode. It would just I'm not sure about what happened, but it would probably wouldn't explode. Same thing over here in, um in in this scenario, this would only work if gravity existed. It we were in space. Every push this ball down. Then it wouldn't be. Nothing really would happen and probably just go this way. Go, go, just go forward. So So, um reactions. Only spontaneous in a given environment. And, uh, at the speed off that reaction it it's It's actually dependent on a bunch of different. A bunch of different factors support. So let's look at some other examples of spontaneous reactions. So let's say so. I have these four. So this is a nice soups. Slow the line here. So on the side of slow rations, that's how we have fast reactions on these, a bunch of different reactions. So obviously he's mentioned earlier this explosion, explosions. They are very fast. They haven't really, really fast, so these are all spontaneous. We're just trying to figure out which ones is glowing. Which ones? Fast cliff diving. This so spontaneous reactions. They don't have to just be tor for chemistry. That this also applies to, um, 222 physics. And these just processing is not exactly reactions. So Clift, I think it is both It is, but it's spontaneous as it increases their entropy, the randomness and also socially spontaneous. You know, he just jumped off a cliff. I guess um, and for melting ice that these very slope, that's pretty slow process. If you had at room temperature, that's your environment. Then that would be, and it would. It would melt spontaneously and rusting that safe head. Now, um, or a car. If you left your car outside the rain for years and years and years and years and years come back to it and it's just really trusted, you didn't have to really put any energy. There's no energy involved there. It just, um, interested because of the environment that it was in. And that's the important part. It's be it's the main part of it is due to the environment. Okay, And so for non spontaneous reactions, let's look at some of the slow ones and livers and passwords. So these are some three that I came up with. So this process watching a video doesn't like this one. It's not very spontaneous. You just you have to put in work to do it. You always have to put in work to do. If you stop, you can stop at any time. It wouldn't keep playing, and you want you don't take in the information. The, uh, doing homework. This one. I like to put a stop to this one middle ish because, you know, sometimes you always have to put him where to do homework. It doesn't just do itself, you know. And so when you start putting in the energy, it stops going. And same thing with electrolysis of water. John, that's a pretty fast one. Um, it's when you have these two electrodes in water and, um, can you pounds? You put electric current through that. The electrodes and those electrodes caused the water split in 200 oxygen guests and not as it is known, spontaneous because hiding announced. Didn't they want to? Um, they're not the most stable things, and they want to react with each other in that case, and they're just much more stable when they're in the what form of water. So those are some examples of some non fast and slow, non spontaneous and spontaneous reaction behind here. So the main takeaway is that from this video is that they are spontaneous eventually, they're not spontaneous reactions, but they're not always fast. They're not always slow. Some of them are slow, some of them are fast, and they're not always dependent. The speed of the reaction it is not dependent on if the reaction is spontaneous