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Dry air near sea level has the following composition by volume: $\mathrm{N}_{2}, 78.08$ percent; $\mathrm{O}_{2}, 20.94$ percent; $\mathrm{Ar}$ 0.93 percent; $\mathrm{CO}_{2}, 0.05$ percent. The atmospheric pressure is 1.00 atm. Calculate (a) the partial pressure of each gas in atm and (b) the concentration of each gas in moles per liter at $0^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$. (Hint: Because volume is proportional to the number of moles present, mole fractions of gases can be expressed as ratios of volumes at the same temperature and pressure.)

a) $\mathrm{P}_{\mathrm{N}_{2}}=0.7808 \mathrm{atm}$$\mathrm{P}_{\mathrm{O}_{2}}=0.2094 \mathrm{atm}$$\mathrm{P}_{\mathrm{Ar}}=0.0093 \mathrm{atm}$$\mathrm{P}_{\mathrm{CO}_{2}}=0.0005 \mathrm{atm}$b) $\mathrm{C}_{\mathrm{N}_{2}}=0.0348 \mathrm{mol} / \mathrm{L}$$\mathrm{C}_{\mathrm{O}_{2}}=9.34 \cdot 10^{-3} \mathrm{mol} / \mathrm{L}$$\mathrm{C}_{\mathrm{Ar}}=4.15 \cdot 10^{-4} \mathrm{mol} / \mathrm{L}$$\mathrm{C}_{\mathrm{CO}_{2}}=2.23 \cdot 10^{-5} \mathrm{mol} / \mathrm{L}$

Chemistry 101

Chapter 5

Gases

Rice University

Drexel University

University of Kentucky

Lectures

05:03

In physics, a gas is one of the three major states of matter (the others being liquid and solid). A gas is a fluid that does not support tensile stress, meaning that it is compressible. The word gas is a neologism first used by the early 17th-century Flemish chemist J.B. van Helmont, based on the Greek word ("chaos"), the simplest of all the elemental forms of matter.

04:46

In physics, thermodynamics is the science of energy and its transformations. The three laws of thermodynamics state that energy can be exchanged between physical systems as heat and work; that the total energy of a system can be calculated by adding up all forms of energy in the system; that energy spontaneously flows from being localized to becoming dispersed, spread out, or uniform; and that the entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium.

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Dry air near sea level has…

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Dry air with the following…

01:24

The three main components …

02:09

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