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Entropy change due to driving. Premium gasoline pro-duces $1.23 \times 10^{8} \mathrm{J}$ of heat per gallon when it is burned at atemperature of approximately $400^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ (although the amount canvary with the fuel mixture). If the car's engine is 25$\%$ efficient, three-fourths of that heat is expelled into the air, typically at$20^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ . If your car gets 35 miles per gallon of gas, by how muchdoes the car's engine change the entropy of the world whenyou drive 1.0 mile? Does it decrease or increase it?

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3759 $\mathrm{J} / \mathrm{K}$ The entropy is increased.

Physics 101 Mechanics

Chapter 16

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Temperature and Heat

Thermal Properties of Matter

The First Law of Thermodynamics

Cornell University

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

Simon Fraser University

Lectures

03:15

In physics, the second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can only increase over time. The total entropy of a system can never decrease, and the entropy of a system approaches a constant value as the temperature approaches zero.

03:25

The First Law of Thermodynamics is an expression of the principle of conservation of energy. The law states that the change in the internal energy of a closed system is equal to the amount of heat energy added to the system, minus the work done by the system on its surroundings. The total energy of a system can be subdivided and classified in various ways.

05:31

Premium gasoline produces …

04:11

04:49

Energy from Gasoline Burni…

01:43

Entropy in the Real World:…

04:12

Predict/Calculate Energy f…

04:04

A car uses an average powe…

03:08

03:27

A heat engine whose therma…

01:11

What is the change in inte…

02:27

the first step. Today's problem is the fear of what Q H and Q C are the heat going into the cold reservoir from the hot reservoir. And so to do this, we're going to analyze the one mile that the car's driven and we know that it goes 35 miles a gallon. And so if we could buy one mile away 35 miles per one gallon, we get the amount of gallons that takes going mile, which is 0.286 gallons. And for this amount of gallons, we can use the conversion factor that the problem gives us to determine the amount of jewels that is in this. And so, actually, I don't want equal sent there. I want to multiply by the conversion factor, which is 1.23 times 10 to the eighth Jules per one gallon. This is what the problem gives us. Now we can cancel the gallons and we have jewels and we end up with 3.52 times 10 to the sixth. Jules, please. Now, we're also told the problem that that he entering the cold rose of our is three force the heat from the hot reservoir, and we know what Q H is. We know that it must be this here. And so this is equal to Q H. And so you see, Is he good? 034 set or 2.64 times 10 to the six. So now that we have the two cues, by the way, this is negative, since it's leaving the horrors of war. Now that we have two cues, we can calculate the Delta. As for both so Delta, as for the engine, is going to be Q H over in the temperature of the engine. O que h was found to be negative 3.52 times 10 to the Sixth Rules, and the age is 673. Kellen, this is given in the problem, but I think it's given in the promise degrees Celsius. So you'll have to convert to Calvin, which is a pretty simple commercial. But just make sure you do it, and that's the Delta s for the engine. So now we need Delta s for the environment, which I'm just gonna label with any. It's equal to QC over T c. And we just can't make you see is this Since he'd is entering the environment, this is going to remain positive. Only plug it in here and t c is given as 20 degrees Celsius. But we need to convert this into Kellen. And so it's going write this down over to see which is 2 93 children. And he ultimate our ultimate quest. Just Farrell. But built s total lists, which is for the whole entire process, the environment and the engine. And what you do is you attitude. So you have Delta s engine and you're gonna add it to adult us, Martin. And when you do these divisions out and you add them together, you get 3,780 Jules for killing. So this is the overall universal increase in interview when you drive this car one mile and so it's positive. And so it does abide by the second law of thermodynamics.

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