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Explain why anions are always larger than the atoms from which they are derived, whereas cations are always smaller than the atoms from which they are derived. (Hint: Consider the electrostatic attraction between protons and electrons.)
1A cation is formed when electrons are removed from the outermost shell of the parent atom. When this happens, the effective nuclear charge increases and the attractive force between the electrons and the nucleus increases. Thus, a cation is smaller in size than its parent atom.An anion on the other hand is formed when electron(s) are added to the outermost shell of the parent atom. When this happens, the effective nuclear charge decreases and the attractive force between the electrons and the nucleus decreases. As a result of this, the distance between the valence electrons and the nucleus is more in anions than in it's the parent atom. Thus, an anion is larger in size than its parent atom.
Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Atoms, Molecules and Ions
University of Central Florida
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Yeah, Hi there. Let's talk about cat ions and an ions. Let's start off with cat ions. Cat ions is the name that we give Adams. When they become ions. By losing electrons, they lose one or more electrons to become a positive ion. When they lose electrons, they are going to end up that way with mawr protons, then electrons because the number of protons air not changing. So they started off with an even number of protons and electrons. They lost one of more electrons. So now there are more protons and electrons. This is going to result in the effective nuclear charge. Thank you. Increasing. Yeah. In other words, there is going to be a stronger pull on the remaining electrons. So the attractive force increases. And then, of course, is the attractive force pulling the electrons towards the nucleus. So if these electrons air pulled more closely to the nucleus that is going to result in a smaller Adam radius, atomic radius will call it okay. So the radius decreases in size because the remaining electrons are pulled more closely to the nucleus. This is what occurs in cat ions. Let's talk about an ions next we're going to see the reverse happened here. An ions. Those gain electrons. One or more electrons regained, making these negative ions. All right, so now there's gonna be mawr electrons, then protons, because again, the number of protons has not changed. But we have increased the number of electrons and they started out as equal as a result that effective nuclear charge is going to decrease. There's going to be less of a pool on each of the electrons from the nucleus. So that means theater active force decreases. Thes electrons are not pulled as closely to the nucleus. So therefore there's going to be a larger and rather than atomic, actually called Ionic radius. Since these air no longer Adams there now ions, there's now a larger ionic radius. Let me change up here. Also, I'm gonna go back and change it to Ionic just to keep the terminology consistent, because when Adams lose or gain electrons, they're typically no longer called Adams there, then called ions so again an ions. Since they gained more electrons, that effective nuclear charge decreased. There's less attractive force. And so the electrons actually move a little bit further from the nucleus, giving the ion ah, larger radius. All right. Thank you for watching
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