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Problem 38

Find $\Delta S_{\mathrm{rxn}}^{\delta}$ for the combustion of ammonia to nitrogen dioxide and water vapor. Is the sign of $\Delta S_{\mathrm{rxn}}^{\circ}$ as expected?

Answer

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Chapter 20

Thermodynamics: Entropy, Free Energy, and the Direction of Chemical Reactions

## Discussion

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## Recommended Questions

Given the values of $\Delta H_{\mathrm{rxn}}, \Delta S_{\mathrm{rxn}}$ and $T,$ determine $\Delta S_{\text { univ }}$ and predict whether or not each reaction is spontaneous. (Assume that all reactants and products are in their standard states.)

\begin{equation}\begin{array}{l}{\text { a. } \Delta H_{\mathrm{rxn}}^{\circ}=-95 \mathrm{kJ} ; \Delta S_{\mathrm{rxn}}^{\circ}=-157 \mathrm{J} / \mathrm{K} ; T=298 \mathrm{K}} \\ {\text { b. } \Delta H_{\mathrm{rxn}}^{\circ}=-95 \mathrm{kJ} ; \Delta S_{\mathrm{rxn}}^{\circ}=-157 \mathrm{J} / \mathrm{K} ; T=855 \mathrm{K}} \\ {\text { c. } \Delta H_{\mathrm{rxn}}^{\circ}=+95 \mathrm{kJ} ; \Delta S_{\mathrm{rxn}}^{\circ}=-157 \mathrm{J} / \mathrm{K} ; T=298 \mathrm{K}} \\ {\text { d. } \Delta H_{\mathrm{rxn}}^{\circ}=-95 \mathrm{kJ} ; \Delta S_{\mathrm{rxn}}^{\circ}=+157 \mathrm{J} / \mathrm{K} ; T=398 \mathrm{K}}\end{array}\end{equation}

In photosynthesis, plants form glucose $\left(\mathrm{C}_{6} \mathrm{H}_{12} \mathrm{O}_{6}\right)$ and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. Write a balanced equation for photosynthesis and calculate $\Delta H_{\mathrm{rxn}}^{\circ}, \Delta S_{\mathrm{rxn}}^{\circ},$ and $\Delta G_{\mathrm{ren}}^{\circ}$ at $25^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ . Is photosynthesis spontaneous?