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Food irradiation. Food is often irradiated with the use of either $x$ rays or electron beams, to help prevent spoilage. A low dose of $5-75$ kilorads (krad) helps to reduce and kill inactive parasites, a medium dose of $100-400$ krad kills microorganisms and pathogens such as salmonella, and a high dose of $2300-5700$ krad sterilizes food so that it can be stored without refrigeration. (a) A dose of 175 krad kills spoilage microorganisms in fish. If $x$ rays are used, what would be the dose in Gy, Sv, and rem, and how much energy would a 150 portion of fish absorb? (See Table $30.3 . )$ (b) Repeat part (a) if electrons of RBE 1.50 are used instead of x rays.

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a. 262.5 $\mathrm{J}$b. 262.5 $\mathrm{J}$

Physics 103

Chapter 30

Nuclear and High-Energy Physics

Atomic Physics

Nuclear Physics

Particle Physics

Cornell University

Simon Fraser University

Hope College

University of Sheffield

Lectures

02:42

Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. It is primarily concerned with the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and the processes by which these arrangements change. The theory of quantum mechanics, a set of mathematical rules that describe the behaviour of matter and its interactions, provides a good model for the description of atomic structure and properties.

02:26

In physics, nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the constituents and interactions of atomic nuclei. The most commonly known applications of nuclear physics are nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons technology, but the research has provided application in many fields, including those in nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging, ion implantation in materials engineering, and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology.

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10:44

for part A. We're dealing with X rays, so R B is equal to one. And the doses 135 killer aliens were asked to find the dose and Gracie Verts rims and the energy a 150 grand fish would absorb. So 175 killer Etienne's you can multiply this by the conversion into grace. Well, um, you could also rewrite Killer Radiance has 10 to the third Radiance. But I'm gonna leave everything and kill a radiance. So this is 0.1 killing graze K g y for everyone Kill a radiant. So that's our conversion. Carrying this out, we find that this is equal to 1.75 Uh, Killer Grace. There's also 1 to 1 ratio between killer grays and killer jewels. For kilograms, this is equal to 1.75 killer Jules, her kilogram so we can go ahead and box all of this in as part of our solution for a okay were asked to find it in sea birds as well. The conversion between killer grays and kill asi vertes is the number of killer grace times the r B e value but the R V E value is one. So we also have 1.75 Killa Siebert's. Okay, We also need to convert the, um the raid radiant value our rad value into RAM value. Well, the rad value is equal to where the renda was equal to the rad value times the r B e value. So therefore, since the RV value is one, the rim value is 175. Killer ribs become box season is part of our solution for a and the last thing we need to do is find the energy while the energy here is equal to the mass, uh, times. But, uh, the radiation dosage and kill it, Jules per kilogram, the mass here, 0.15 kilograms. And then we're gonna multiply that by 1.75 killer Jules per kilogram or 1.75 times 10 to the third jewels for kilogram. Carrying out this operation, we find that the energy and units of jewels is 262 0.5 jewels weaken box. That in is the final part of our solution to part a part e we're no longer dealing with X rays. This time we have an R B E value equal the 1.5 Well, since the the grays and the jewels per kilogram are not affected by the R V E value, those aren't gonna change. So we still have 1.75 killing Grace look. And we also have This is equal to 1.75 killer Jules her kilogram so he can box those in. But, um, the calculation of the sea vertes is affected by the R V E value. This is 1.5 times the and gray's value, which is 1.75 Kili graze. So carrying out this operation, we find that seabirds is equal to two 0.6 to 5 Kilis evers. Well, since the conversion between see verts and rim is two multiplied by 100 this is equal to 262.5 qwilleran. So those were the other two units were asked to find it Also asked about Thea the energy absorption. But again, since the energy absorption is equal to the mass times the radiation rate and kill a Jules per kilogram, those two values are the same as in part A. So the energy is gonna be the exact same as the energy and part. Eh? It's going to be 262.5 jewels making box in 262.5 jewels and as the final part of our solution to be.

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