For each reaction, calculate $\Delta H_{\mathrm{r…

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Problem 61

For each reaction, calculate $\Delta H_{\mathrm{rxn}}^{\circ}, \Delta S_{\mathrm{rxn}}^{\circ}$ and $\Delta G_{\mathrm{rxn}}^{\circ}$ at $25^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ and state whether or not the reaction is spontaneous. If the reaction is not spontaneous, would a change in temperature make it spontaneous? If so, should the temperature be raised or lowered from $25^{\circ} \mathrm{C} ?$ \begin{equation}\begin{array}{l}{\text { a. } \mathrm{N}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{4}(g) \longrightarrow 2 \mathrm{NO}_{2}(g)} \\ {\text { b. } \mathrm{NH}_{4} \mathrm{Cl}(s) \longrightarrow \mathrm{HCl}(g)+\mathrm{NH}_{3}(g)} \\ {\text { c. } 3 \mathrm{H}_{2}(g)+\mathrm{Fe}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{3}(s) \longrightarrow 2 \mathrm{Fe}(s)+3 \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}(g)} \\ {\text { d. } \mathrm{N}_{2}(g)+3 \mathrm{H}_{2}(g) \longrightarrow 2 \mathrm\ {NH}_{3}(g)}\end{array}\end{equation}

Answer

PART $\mathrm{A} : \Delta H^{\circ}=57.2 \mathrm{kJ}, \Delta G^{\circ}=4.8 \mathrm{kJ}, \Delta S^{\circ}=175.8 \mathrm{J} / \mathrm{K},$ nonspontaneous, and raise temperature. PART $\mathrm{B} : \Delta H^{\circ}=176.2 \mathrm{kJ}, \Delta G^{\circ}=91.2 \mathrm{kJ}, \Delta S^{\circ}=285.1 \mathrm{J} / \mathrm{K},$ nonspontaneous, and raise temperature. PART $\mathrm{C} : \Delta H^{\circ}=98.8 \mathrm{kJ}, \Delta G^{\circ}=56.4 \mathrm{kJ}, \Delta S^{\circ}=141.5 \mathrm{J} / \mathrm{K}$ , nonspontaneous, and raise temperature. PART $\mathrm{D} : \Delta H^{\circ}=-91.8 \mathrm{kJ}, \Delta G^{\circ}=-32.8 \mathrm{kJ}, \Delta S^{\circ}=-198.1 \mathrm{J} / \mathrm{K},$ and spontaneous.

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