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Give the oxidation number of the underlined atoms in the following molecules and ions: (a) $\underline{\mathrm{ClF}},$ (b) $\underline{\mathrm{IF}}_{7}$(c) $\underline{C} \mathbf{H}_{4},(\mathrm{d}) \underline{\mathbf{C}}_{2} \mathbf{H}_{2},(\mathbf{e}) \underline{\mathbf{C}}_{2} \mathbf{H}_{4},(\mathbf{f}) \mathbf{K}_{2} \mathbf{C r} \mathbf{O}_{4},(\mathbf{g}) \mathbf{K}_{2} \mathbf{C r}_{2} \mathbf{O}_{7}$(h) $\mathrm{KMnO}_{4}$, (i) $\mathrm{NaH} \underline{\mathrm{C}} \mathrm{O}_{3},$ (j) $\mathrm{Li}_{2},(\mathrm{k}) \mathrm{Na} \underline{\mathrm{O}}_{3},(\mathrm{l}) \mathrm{K} \underline{\mathrm{O}}_{2}$(m) $\underline{\mathrm{PF}_{6}},(\mathrm{n}) \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{Au}} \mathrm{Cl}_{4}$

(a) CIF: As fluorine atom is more electronegative than Chlorine, Chlorine will have +1 Oxidation number(b) If 7: As fluorine is -1 oxidation number and the molecule is neutral lodine will have +7 Oxidationnumber(c) $\underline{C H}_{4}:$ As Hydrogen is less electronegative than carbon, Carbon will have -4 Oxidation number(d) $\underline{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{2}:$ As each carbon is attached to one hydrogen $-1,$ and other carbon $0,$ Oxidation number of carbon is -1(e) $\mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{4}:$ As each carbon is attached to 2 hydrogen and other carbon, -2 Oxidation number(f) $\mathrm{K}_{2} \mathrm{CrO}_{4}: 4$ Oxygen will have total -8 oxidation number, and potassium will have +2 . Hence Chromium will have +6 oxidation number(g) $\mathrm{K}_{2} \mathrm{Cr}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{7}: 7$ Oxygen will have total -14 oxidation number and potassium will have +2 . Hence Chromium will have +6 oxidation number(h) $\mathrm{KMnO}_{4}: 4$ Oxygen will have total -8 oxidation number and potassium will have +1 . Hence manganese will have +7 oxidation number(i) $\mathrm{NaHCO}_{3}: 3$ Oxygen will have total -6 oxidation number. Sodium and hydrogen will have +1 . Hence carbon will have +4 oxidation number(i) $\underline{L}_{2}:$ As both atoms are same, It will have 0 Oxidation number(k) $\mathrm{NalO}_{3}: 3$ Oxygen will have total -6 oxidation number and sodium will have +1 , hence lodine will have+5 oxidation number(I) $\mathrm{KO}_{2}:$ Potassium is in $+1,$ hence two oxygen atoms will have -1. So each oxygen will have - $\%$ oxidation number. It is a superoxide, called potassium superoxide$(\mathrm{m}) \mathrm{PF}_{6}: 6$ fluorine will have - 6 oxidation number and there is a net -1 charge. Hence Phosphorous will have +5 oxidation number (n) $\mathrm{KAuCl}_{2}: 4$ Chlorine will have -4 oxidation and potassium is $+1,$ then Gold will have +3 oxidation number

Chemistry 102

Chapter 4

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Solutions

Aqueous Equilibria

Carleton College

Rice University

University of Kentucky

Brown University

Lectures

03:58

In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. The term "solution" is also used to refer to the resultant mixture. The solution is usually a fluid. The particles of a solute are dispersed or dissolved in the solvent. The resulting solution is also called the solvent. The solvent is the continuous phase.

00:41

In chemistry, an ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electric charge. The name was coined by John Dalton for ions in 1808, and later expanded to include molecules in 1834.

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Give the oxidation number …

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Give the oxidation numbers…

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Give oxidation numbers for…

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finding the oxidation numbers of the underlined Adams in the following molecules and I on studying with cooling forward since what it has in oxidation. Number of negative one and fluent is more elected negative than queen. We will have a plus one oxidation number. And for Ionian, some have, uh, fluoride. We'll be looking at ironing. So since flooding has a negative one oxidation on the time seven. Notice that this molecule tohave the zero total charge rioting has to have a in oxidation number of positive. Seven. Next, we have methane or ch boilers. Millikin carbon. Since hydrogen is less left a negative than carbon, Quitman will have a positive for charge the total of zero on the molecules. So Clevant has a positive. Next, we have see a to H two, where hydrogen has an oxidation number of plus one with two of them as well as so for the total of zero oxidation number on the time molecule carbon must have an oxidation under the positive one for C two h four on the carbon hydrogen has a oxidation of the plus one on in order times fourth with hydrogen molecules. Notice for that. Remarkable to have inoculation Zero. How then? Must have tried to have negative too. Next we have potassium clement. And if we let out to, we have two times positive Six, which is the Win six. So we know that this molecule divides into following toe ions. Cave Plus and CEO, though was to minors. And using this molecule, we have to find the oxidation. Under the coming, which is warm, times have coming. Plus for the times, the oxidation number of oxygen, the total of two of negative too. So since four times negative was negative eight come, it has to have in our condition of positive six. Similarly, we will look at K to see on 07 which is composed of K plus and C are to since you're too close, so will be CEO to who so U minus. So that will be two times oxidation. Number of comet plus seven times. Doctor, the number of oxygen equals negative to use. That's negative. 14 which means that the oxidation of the committee is once again less positive. Six. So, no, it's cool that owed so we can move on to potassium Oh oh, which is composed of K plus and, um, and was minus and we'll be looking at this. I on to the position of manganese. So we have one times on condition of manganese, plus four times oxidation on the oxygen, which is equal to negative one. This is negative eight. So the exhibition of manganese is positive. Seven. Next we have Sodium CEO, which is composed of A plus, and H CEO the minus. We'll be looking at this for the oxidation number on the carbon. So we have one times oxidation. Number of I didn't plus Corbyn oxidation number close. Three times the oxidation number Occident. The total of negative one. This is one plus the oxidation of bill of carbon minus six. The questions marks vision of the positive. Next we have with the M two and since this is elemental, the oxidation number will be a zero and and after that, we have. So it's is you. And next we have sodium my date. So this is composed of n a plus in i o to minus. So you look in. No, we'll be looking at I need to find the oxidation of the of our dean. So we have one times oxidation of the ironing, plus to the times negative two of the oxidation of the locks in the total negative one. And since this is negative six oxidation number of Mayadeen is negative is positive. Funny. Moving on, we will be looking at Kale to which is come, which and potassium has and oxidation number of positive one. And this is a special case in which oxygen will also go to as a molecule have a from oxidation of of negative one. But since oxygen is its die atomic state, each oxygen atom will have a negative 1/2 charge. And next we have this heck. Secluded hexafluoride minus. So yes, we have. We're looking for phosphorus. So the oxidation of the Fossas plus six times the oxidation of the flooring equals negative one. This is negative. Six of oxidation of the office is going to be positive. Fun. Finally we have Okay, you C four and we'll be looking for gold. So we have. This can be divided into two ions k plus and a you see, with minus. We'll be looking at the gold cool guys and we will have one times the oxidation of the gold plus for the times. Oxidation number of cooling equals negative one remind us for so gold has an oxidation of the positive thing.

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