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Given the phase diagram of carbon shown, answer the following questions: (a) How many triple points are there and what are the phases that can coexist at each triple point? (b) Which has a higher density, graphite or diamond? (c) Synthetic diamond can be made from graphite. Using the phase diagram, how would you go about making diamond?
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Intermolecular Forces and Liquids and Solids
In physics, a solid is a state of matter characterized by rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume. Solid objects have a definite volume, they resist forces (such as pressure, tension and shear) in all directions, and they have a shape that does not change smoothly with time. The branch of physics that studies solids is called solid-state physics. The physical properties of solids are highly related to their chemical composition and structure. For example, the melting point of ice is significantly lowered if its crystal structure is disrupted.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure. As such, a liquid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, gas and plasma). A liquid is made up of tiny vibrating particles of matter, such as atoms, held together by intermolecular bonds. Water is, by far, the most common liquid on Earth. Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the shape of a container. Most liquids resist compression, although others can be compressed. Unlike a gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every space of a container, and maintains a fairly constant density. A distinctive property of the liquid state is surface tension, leading to wetting phenomena.
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let's start by counting up the triple points that exist on this graph. First off, we noticed that we have a triple point right here because there are three phases co existing and there's another one down here. So that means for a Our answer is to we have one where there is diamond, graphite and liquid, and we have one where there is graphite liquid and gas. Note that it is impossible to go directly from diamond to gas on this diagram. Okay, so now in B, we're considering density, and we know that as we apply higher and higher pressure, we're going to get a smaller and smaller substance, so it must be more debt. So thus, clearly, diamond has a higher density. And that makes sense because it's able to compact better. Hence why it's able to exist under such high pressures. And in our last question here, we're going to consider this phase diagram and how we would go from graphite over to diamond, which weaken due quite simply, by going up in per pressure, remembering that this axis here is our pressure axis and this axis down here is our temperature axes so clearly all we have to do is increase the pressure. And we will eventually go from graphite to diamond every single time, no matter where we are on this curve.
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