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Heating copper(II) oxide at $400^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ does not produce any appreciable amount of Cu: $\mathrm{CuO}(s) \rightleftharpoons \mathrm{Cu}(s)+\frac{1}{2} \mathrm{O}_{2}(g) \quad \Delta G^{\circ}=127.2 \mathrm{kJ} / \mathrm{mol}$However, if this reaction is coupled to the conversion of graphite to carbon monoxide, it becomes spontaneous. Write an equation for the coupled process and calculate the equilibrium constant for the coupled reaction.

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6.1

Chemistry 102

Chapter 17

Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium

Thermodynamics

Carleton College

University of Maryland - University College

University of Toronto

Lectures

00:42

In thermodynamics, the zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

01:47

A spontaneous process is one in which the total entropy of the universe increases. In a spontaneous process, the system will move from an ordered state to a disordered state, such as from ice to water, or from a solid to a gas. The concept of spontaneity was introduced by Rudolf Clausius in 1850.

00:50

Heating copper(II) oxide a…

01:09

Copper(I) oxide can be oxi…

04:13

04:04

Use Hess's law to det…

Use Hess' law and the…

01:54

The oxidation of copper(I…

03:01

Carbon dioxide reacts with…

So, uh, we need to calculate the delta G zero four uh, the production of carbon monoxide from carbon and, uh, and oxygen and so usual way using the values in appendix three, uh, products. Ah, minus the sum for the reactant. Both of the reactant are elements in their standard state. So those are both zero, and the value is a negative 1 37.3 tillage als prum old. So that gives us the delta G zero for that reaction. And we were given, uh, the standard free energy change for the, uh, heating of copper oxide. And so we can combine the two reactions the half mole of oxygen cancels, and we've got the carbon in the copper oxide on the one side, the carbon monoxide in the copper on the other. And because there is a substance in common that cancels Ah, that means Theo. The reactions are coupled that the sum of their delta cheese is the Delta G for the coupled reaction. And so here's the couple reaction, and it's Delta G. And from the Delta G zero, actually, the standard free energy change Delta G zero Ah, we can calculate the value of the log of K by just dividing both sides by negative rt. So that will give us the natural log of K plugging in the ah Delta G for the reaction and are And this was said to be at 400 degrees C and so we get that the log is 1.8. The natural log of K and therefore K uh is 6.1.

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