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Problem 91

Magnesia (MgO) is used for fire brick, crucibles,…

Problem 90

Hemoglobin carries $\mathrm{O}_{2}$ from the lungs to tissue cells, where the $\mathrm{O}_{2}$ is released. The protein is represented as $\mathrm{Hb}$ in its unoxygenated form and as $\mathrm{Hb} \cdot \mathrm{O}_{2}$ in its oxygenated form. One reason
$\mathrm{CO}$ is toxic is that it competes with $\mathrm{O}_{2}$ in binding to Hb:
$$\mathrm{Hb} \cdot \mathrm{O}_{2}(a q)+\mathrm{CO}(g) \rightleftharpoons \mathrm{Hb} \cdot \mathrm{CO}(a q)+\mathrm{O}_{2}(g)$$
(a) If $\Delta G^{\circ} \approx-14 \mathrm{kJ}$ at $37^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ (body temperature), what is the ratio of [Hb. CO] to $\left[\mathrm{Hb} \cdot \mathrm{O}_{2}\right]$ at $37^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ with $\left[\mathrm{O}_{2}\right]=[\mathrm{CO}] ?$ (b) How is Le Châtelier's principle used to treat CO poisoning?

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Video Transcript

were given a reaction to describe the binding of oxygen to human globe in in the blood in part A. We want to determine this this given ratio that is, the concentration of carbon monoxide buying bound to hemoglobin to a concentration of oxygen. Found tiki myoglobin. We can begin by writing out the equilibrium constant expression k, which we know will be the concentration of each one of the products. Multiply together to race to the power of their stroke, the metric coefficients divided by the product of all the reactant race to their striking metric coefficients. In this equation, all of the coefficients air one. So we just multiply the concentrations of the products and then divide by the all of the concentrations of the reactant multiplied together, starting with the products we have. A concentration of hemoglobin found two carbon monoxide times a concentration of 02 divided by the product of the reacting concentrations sue even glue been found to go to times a concentration of co two. We're told in the problem that the concentration of 02 and CO two are the same, so we can cancel out those turns in the equilibrium expression and what we're left with is the ratio that we're trying to determine. We know that there is a an equation we can use to solve for the new miracle value. Okay. And so because a equals this race you that we're trying to solve, the value that we saw for K from the equation is equal to that ratio to the equation that we're going to use is that K equals E g power of negative Delta G over rt. Because we're given values for Delta G and teeth in the problem. So K equals e to the power of negative Delta G, which is given as negative 14 killer jewels per mole. And we can multiply that by 1000 to get it in units of jewels Permal so we can cancel out units for our later on su. It comes out to Jules Permal. We divide that by l 8.314 Jules, her mole I'm skeleton times the temperature which is 310 Kelvin after we converted from degree Celsius. And now when we plugged at all in, we get an answer for hey, which again is equal to that. We're trying to solve, for we get a value of 2.3 times 10 squared and that is going to be unit lis, and that is equal to ratio. The concentration of HB bonded to CEO to the concentration of HB bonded to go to in part B. We want to know how we can use the Shadley heiress principle in order to treat C o poisoning from the information in the problem. We know that carbon monoxide competes with with oxygen to buying to hemoglobin. Human beings need oxygen to buying to hemoglobin instead of carbon monoxide. So in carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin that represents carbon monoxide poisoning. So we want oxygen to bond to hemoglobin. So we want to favor the left side of the reaction. So how can we use the Chateau years principle in order to favor the reactant side of this given equation? Well, we see that we can increase the oxygen concentration in the air. We have an oxygen rich environment, then well, chandeliers principle of states that the system will respond by shifting to the opposite side of of the side where where the environment was changed. So if we have an oxygen rich environment. Then we can favor the left side and get oxygen to bind hemoglobin instead of carbon monoxide. So for part B need to have an oh, too rich environment in order to treat that carbon monoxide poisoning and get oxygen to buying to hemoglobin instead.