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(II) A $130-\mathrm{kg}$ astronaut (including space suit) acquires a speed of 2.50 $\mathrm{m} / \mathrm{s}$ by pushing off with his legs from a 1700 -kg space capsule. (a) What is the change in speed of the space capsule? (b) If the push lasts 0.500 $\mathrm{s}$ , what is the average force exerted by each on the other? As the reference frame, use the position of the capsule before the push. (c) What is the kinetic energy of each after the push?

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a) $-0.19 \mathrm{m} / \mathrm{s}$b) $6.5 \times 10^{2} N$c) 4.0 \times 10^{2} \mathrm{J}31$J$

Physics 101 Mechanics

Chapter 9

Linear Momentum

Motion Along a Straight Line

Kinetic Energy

Potential Energy

Energy Conservation

Moment, Impulse, and Collisions

Cornell University

University of Sheffield

University of Winnipeg

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In physics, a conservative force is a force that is path-independent, meaning that the total work done along any path in the field is the same. In other words, the work is independent of the path taken. The only force considered in classical physics to be conservative is gravitation.

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In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. The same amount of work is done by the body in decelerating from its current speed to a state of rest. The kinetic energy of a rotating object is the sum of the kinetic energies of the object's parts.

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it's so we use momentum conservation to start things off. In part, air conservation means that initial momentum will be court a fundamental of the system. So initially, you just have the momentum off the spacecrafts are the capsule. Uh, it's called steno tow it see so massive Capsule times, initial velocity of capsule and V C one, um, and that is equal to massive astronaut times. Velocity of astronaut plus massive capsule. Um ah, tough times, Velocity of capsule, uh, two. And so what we see here eyes that, uh m c times you see one minus. We see too. Uh, he is equal to m A V A, um is equal time. Maybe it right on dhe eso. This is just Delta V. C. So the change in the capsules velocity Delta B c is just em a times B a over m. C. So that's, um massive. The astronauts, So 1 30 kilograms over. Massive capsule, 1700 kilograms times ferocity of astronaut. 2.5 2.5 meters per second. Whoops. 2.5. There's a point there minutes per second squared on. That gives us ah the change in velocity of the capsule of um Ah. Whoops. I think there will be a negative, um, negative sign here because we want VC to minus of if you want, but so wrecked. So the change of velocity is just negative 0.19 meters per second. Ah, and part B force, um, from well is caused by the astronaut pushing on the capsule. So this is just massive. The astronaut m a Times change an astronaut's velocity Delta v a over, uh, change in time. So that would be 1 30 kilos over 0.5 seconds. Times 2.5 again. 2.5 minus zero meters per second. This gives us force off 6 50 news Ah, and parts seat. We want kinetic energies on So kinetic energy of the astronaut is well, they're both 1/2 and be square For the astronaut. It's 1/2 times 1 30 kilograms times 2.5 meters per second quantity squared, giving us 400 jewels approximately and kinetic energy of the capsule. He is 1/2 time 1700 kilograms times aa minus 0.19 meters per second. Quantity squared, giving us about 31 Jules and that's it

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