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Problem 15 Hard Difficulty

Indicate the type of solute-solvent interaction (Section 11.2$)$ that should be most important in each of the following solutions: (a) $\mathrm{CCl}_{4}$ in benzene $\left(\mathrm{C}_{6} \mathrm{H}_{6}\right),$ , ( b ) methanol $\left(\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{OH}\right)$ in water, (c) $\mathrm{KBr}$ in water, $(\mathbf{d}) \mathrm{HCl}$ in acetonitrile $\left(\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{CN}\right)$

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Video Transcript

this question of massive described the types of Salyut solvents and direction first of carbon tetrachloride in Benzie. So carbon tetrachloride is a, um, non polar molecule because it has a central carbon Adam with four chlorine atoms coming off of it. I'll even leave this first eso this. Even though each bond has a cycle to it, the entire molecule does not. Benzene is also a non polar molecule, so it's six carbons connected by single indelible bond. So each vertex have a carbon atom. Um, it's also symmetric non polar bonds. So this is a non polar molecule with another non polar molecule. When those two types of molecules interact. When you have our this version interactions in part B, I have methanol in water. So methanol has this, um oh h group. So if we look at that molecule, we've got carbon with, you know, these three hydrogen sze connected to on Oxygen Adam, which is connected to hydrate, and Adam. Now this part of the molecule, the group is able to make hydrogen bonds, especially to something like water. So as you know, water forms hydrogen bonds, and so what you'll have is headroom bonding between the always group in the methanol and the, um, oxygen's here. I actually drew that wrong. It should be bonding between that oxygen and this hydrogen or between this hydrogen and the oxygen is with hydra bonding. Six. Place in Part C given possessing bromide in the water. Now, potassium bromide is an ionic compound which separates when you put it in the water. It dissolves and forms Kate plus ions and the are ions. So these air ions that interact with the polar water molecule so water is polar has the cycle moments. What we have are is an ion dye pull interaction. Then finally, for hydrochloric acid HCL in the city of Nitro, I notice that there's no no part of these molecules conform hydrogen bonding. So what we have is HCL, which is polar, right? It has this type of moment in a C Tonight trial, which is also polar. So we've got this very Electra negative piece. Got a disciple moment that goes this way. So we've got to die. Pal's disciple in the Heidelberg acid, the dry Palencia Tonight trial and those we have a cycle diable interaction

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Theodore D.

Carleton College

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Drexel University

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