Menthol $(\mathscr{M}=156.3 \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{mol})$ , the strong-smelling substance in many cough drops, is a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. When 0.1595 $\mathrm{g}$ of menthol was burned in a combustion apparatus, 0.449 $\mathrm{g}$ of $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ and 0.184 $\mathrm{g}$ of $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$ formed. What is menthol's molecular formula?

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(a) The characteristic odor of pineapple is due to ethyl butyrate, a compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Combustion of 2.78 mg of ethyl butyrate produces 6.32 $\mathrm{mg}$ of $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ and 2.58 $\mathrm{mg}$ of $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} .$ What is the empirical formula of the compound? (b) Nicotine, a component of tobacco, is composed of $C, H,$ and $N .$ A 5.250 -mg sample of nicotine was combusted, producing 14.242 $\mathrm{mg}$ of $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ and 4.083 $\mathrm{mg}$ of $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} .$ What is the empirical formula for nicotine? If nicotine has a molar mass of $160 \pm 5 \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{mol},$ what is its molecular formula?

Calculate the mass of each sample.

\begin{equation}\begin{array}{l}{\text { a. } 15.7 \mathrm{mol} \mathrm{HNO}_{3}} \\ {\text { b. } 1.04 \times 10^{-3} \mathrm{mol} \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{2}} \\ {\text { c. } 72.1 \mathrm{mmol} \mathrm{SO}_{2}} \\ {\text { d. } 1.23 \mathrm{mol} \text { xenon difluoride }}\end{array}\end{equation}

Calculate the empirical formula for each stimulant based on its elemental mass percent composition.

\begin{equation}\begin{array}{l}{\text { a. nicotine (found in tobacco leaves): C } 74.03 \%, \mathrm{H} 8.70 \%,} \\ \quad {\text { N } 17.27 \%}\\ {\text { b. caffeine (found in coffee beans): } \mathrm{C} 49.48 \%, \mathrm{H} \text { 5.19\%, }} \\ \quad {\mathrm{N} 28.85 \%, \mathrm{O} 16.48 \%} \end{array}\end{equation}