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Outline the steps for calculating the concentrations of reacting species in an equilibrium reaction.

Here are the general steps in calculating the concentrations of reacting species in an equilibrium reaction1. Convert the given amount into molarity (mol/L) or partial pressures $(a t m)$ for gases.2. Tabulate the changes in concentration with respect to the balanced equation. For instance, in $$a \mathrm{A}+b \mathrm{B} \rightleftharpoons c \mathrm{C}+d \mathrm{D}$$$$\begin{array}{ccccc}\hline & {[\mathrm{A}]} & {[\mathrm{B}]} & {[\mathrm{C}]} & {[\mathrm{D}]} \\\hline \text { Initial } & {[\mathrm{A}]_{0}} & {[\mathrm{B}]_{0}} & {[\mathrm{C}]_{0}} & {[\mathrm{D}]_{0}} \\\text { Change } & -a x & -b x & +c x & +d x \\\text { Equilibrium } & {[\mathrm{A}]_{0}-a x} & {[\mathrm{B}]_{0}-b x} & {[\mathrm{C}]_{0}+c x} & {[\mathrm{D}]_{0}+d x} \\\hline\end{array}$$3. Find the value of $x$ from the known information such as percent dissociation or concentration of one species at equilibrium, or from equilibrium constant.4. Calculate the concentrations of each species at equilibrium from the known value of $x.$

Chemistry 102

Chapter 14

Chemical Equilibrium

University of Maryland - University College

Brown University

University of Toronto

Lectures

10:03

In thermodynamics, a state of thermodynamic equilibrium is a state in which a system is in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings. A system in thermodynamic equilibrium is in thermal equilibrium, mechanical equilibrium, electrical equilibrium, and chemical equilibrium. A system is in equilibrium when it is in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings.

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In chemistry, chemical equilibrium (also known as dynamic equilibrium) is a state of chemical stability in which the concentrations of the chemical substances do not change in the course of time due to their reaction with each other in a closed system. Chemical equilibrium is an example of dynamic equilibrium, a thermodynamic concept.

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So if you are asked, defying the concentrations of species and equilibrium for a certain reaction, there are four main step, so we want to look at to be able to do so. So starting with the first step, you should take any given values in the question itself before the species in question and convert them either to polarity or if we're talking about gases. Partial pressure. Second, you would make an ice table in an ice table, tracks the initial change and then at equilibrium values for a certain equations. I'm gonna give a mock equation here just that we can see this a little bit easier when I'm talking about. So the lower case values would be equivalent to our coefficients in a balanced chemical equation. And then the hooker case wonders we're gonna use as are reacting species. So in order to make a nice table just to I see e So for the i column, which would do issued, put in the initial concentration of the first reactant the initial concentration of the second reactant, and then you would do the same four the products however many products might have for the change we're seeing the change during the reaction. So your take and subtract from the reactant. A value of X in that value of X is going to be based on what the coefficient is in front of that species. So we do the same for the second reactant. And then on the product side, we see positive X values. It's during the reaction. If we start with initial concentration for reactions during the reaction itself, we would be making products. So then, looking at the equilibrium line, the last line you would to the initial concentration minus the change initial concentration at In the change, you do the same for the products. We see the positive value here. So once you've done this, you can go on to the third part of finding concentrations of equilibrium for a reaction in that is to find what X is. And we're talking about this X here, and there are three ways that you confine this X value. So the first in the problem itself, you might be given a percent dissociation. We should tell you how much one of the reacting species disassociated during the reaction itself. You could also use if you are given concentration at equilibrium in order to find the X value, and lastly, you could use an equilibrium constant. For example, you might use Casey if it was given to you or KP if it was given to you. And once you have found X, you can move on to step number four. And step number four is the actual calculation step. And for this step, you're going to calculate the concentration at equilibrium of each species that we saw in the reaction itself. So did you. So you would use the eggs that we found in Part three and the E Row value for whatever column. It's that you're wanting to find the concentration equal of room for. So, for example, it's just so it was e from two. So, for example, to this in red, I could find the concentration of a at equilibrium by putting in the initial and then subtracting with the X value we found, and that would give us the concentration at equilibrium

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