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Problem 16

Without using Appendix $\mathrm{B}$ , predict the…

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Problem 15

Predict the sign of $\Delta S_{\mathrm{sys}}$ for each process: (a) A pond freezes in winter. (b) Atmospheric $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ dissolves in the ocean. (c) An apple tree bears fruit.

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right. So problem 15 were asked to predict the sign of Delta s up the system of very surprised process. So that be positive or negative or some Some very cases zero, not Africa here by you. See later on anyways. So the first problem we haven't problem a we have upon freezing in in winter. Is that a increase or decrease in the entered the system. So let's get the system. Is they pond in winter so more course it more specifically, just a pond. So this case Syria pond a little black kind of bullish shape. And we have much of blue liquid um Luke blue water particles. I don't wanna drop the entire thing cause that's the gratuitous. But hopefully this is an accurate enough representation of water. And when it freezes the top layer and sometimes about on their sometimes a little deeper. But anyways, that the really is the top layer becomes ice. Solve it. And as we know, when things become, go from a liquid to a solid state, interest piqued decreases dramatically. And that and that I wanted to liquid form dick flow and flow and as much of different micro states one solid has very few micro states. You can only vibrate. It can't really move around slash and slide unless it's like, really thin ice. But what we put the fact that it's assaulted on decreases that entropy dramatically. So as it is a decrease in entropy, Glionna A negative Delta s system, something. I'll be right here. Negative. That's negative. Okay, Right. Next one for be with the dissolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide into water. So I'm left here. We have your gas particles were in this case, carbon dioxide floating about ah, body of water. Okay, so when they're in gas state, they flow around, really? And very fast, much faster than it would be in, Uh was in a solution, which is what we have in the right here. We have some particles still in the air, but the point is that some of it has dissolved in the water. So now we have someone, the water and the the We're not in the water as much less degrees of freedom. McAnally can't move about as much. It gets moves once went, moves one direction. It gets hit water at the direction hit by more water. So there's not a lot of freedom of movement. For there was those gas particles started the dissolved gas particles. So in this case, it is a decrease in entropy. We have a high micro state. There's a lot of my job democracies. There's thinking they're very fast and it's constantly changing. But over here it's all in solution, and it's much, much simpler state on where there's love micro states. In this case, this is a decrease in entropy loans. Again, that would be negative. Has brought that here hope. Sorry. Yeah, I guess you could call it may decrease in entropy. Now, over here. Well, we have that luxury bearing fruit eso on left. Here's what I'm representing a street or, in this case, a tree branch. And they're red and green, Little docile. There's like you just nutrients, particles, starch, water, anything that goes into fruit. Okay. And then basically ah, when it goes into when it when it creates fruit, it basically what a tree is basically doing. It's taking the nutrients that are floating around in its in the branches and lease. It focuses in on different specific areas where our focus is, um, into this giant start ball, which is busy good from this starch water, other stuff that I'm not sure of anyway. And that is what? This apple here? Yes, it's concentrated, um, packet of nutrients that were once flowing in the branch to package it and closed, concentrated, um, solid state. And that here is this apple. So we go from flowing here too concentrated and solid and, um, pretty one state, it's Yeah, it just not much flowing. Um, so that's what be what you would have here. It's less this tree branch, more nutrients and more start just more waters. All that is concentrated in there. So in this case, it's also a decrease that contribute because you have ah bunch of stuff going on here and you have less stuff going around here is that would be a decrease in entropy.

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