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Radioactive beta decay. Beta decay is a radioactive decay in which a neutron in the nucleus of an atom breaks apart (decays) to form a proton, an electron, and an antineutrino. The electron is also known as a beta particle. The proton remains in the nucleus, while the electron and antineutrino shoot out. Before the existence of the antineutrino was suspected, it was assumed that only the electron was emitted. Assuming (incorrectly) that there is no antineutrino, and that the neutron is initially at rest inside the nucleus, find (a) the ratio of the speed of the electron to the speed of the proton just after the decay and (b) the ratio of the kinetic energy of the electron to that of the proton just after the decay. Look up the necessary masses in Appendix E. (c) Use the results from parts (a) and (b) to explain why it is the electron, and not the proton, that shoots out of the nucleus. (Note: Electrons actually emerge with a range of speeds; this observation provided the first experimental evidence that an additional particle (the antineutrino) must also be emitted.)

a) 1836b) 1836c) From part (a) and (b) it is clear that the velocity and kinetic energy of the electron is 1836 times greater than that of the proton.

Physics 101 Mechanics

Chapter 8

Momentum

Physics Basics

Kinetic Energy

Potential Energy

Energy Conservation

Moment, Impulse, and Collisions

University of Washington

Simon Fraser University

Hope College

McMaster University

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all right. So the first part asks for why the maid of decay? Whether enough charge considered animated a case of a neutron just neutral eyes converted to a proton. Positively charged on an electron, which is negatively charge. And a neutrino, which is a neutral particle. So for a charge, conservation of zero on the left hand side of plus one minus one plus zero on the right hand side, it's a charge is conserved in a beta decay reaction. Charges conserved, Um, and so the next part asks for Why is the final product a helium atom? This is because of helium. Ah, Adam is very stable. It's a noble gas. It is an extremely stable electronic and atomic configuration, with the to enter to inter electrons to outer electrons and shielding from the general of of the in the end of the nucleus from the end of electrons. So it is a stable Adam. This is why the chain reaction ends there. I don't support. See, we note that you can convert the kinetic energy to ah, potential energy electric potential. So you have 1/2 MV squared. Is that electrons? Initial kinetic energy, and that's converted Teoh que Times Q. One Q two over our, um, and so velocity going to tell you what these are affect. The velocity of the electron will be initial velocity will be two times carry times. Q. One Q two over em are the square root of that, um and so the key one is the electron's charge negative. And, ah, Q two is twice any. So the helium nuclear a nucleus is charge. So you plug in values no two times nine times 10 of the 19 s i units times, um, electrons. Self Q. One is, uh, my speak you to is twice me twice the elementary charge for a hearing nucleus is, um, charge. So this becomes too Times elementary charge 1.6 times 10 to the minus 19 Cool ums squared over mass of the electron 9.1 times 10 to the negative 31 kilograms times The radius, which has given 1.5 have some of the negative meters, gives you the velocity of 8.2 1/10 10 of the eight meters per second. This is of course, larger than the speed of light. So can't happen

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