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Problem 5

Why is $\Delta S_{\text { vap }}$ of a substance …


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Problem 4

State qualitatively the relationship between entropy and freedom of particle motion. Use this idea to explain why you will probably never (a) be suffocated because all the air near you has moved to the other side of the room; (b) see half the water in your cup of tea freeze while the other half boils.

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Video Transcript

Chapter 20 problem for Ask us to explain the relationship between entropy and the freedom of particle motion. So let's say we have three close containers here. One of these containers has particles in it, and these particles are in a solid state, so they're all located around each other. Perhaps they're vibrating, but it is all close together, illustrating a solid. Then we could have those same particles if it were to be mounted in a liquid state. So these particles are a bit more spaced out in this container, but they're not able to take up the entire space of the entire container because it's in the liquid form. Would you make these particles of gas? They're able to take up all the space in that container as a gas would, as air does when it's in a room. So as you go from a solid to a liquid to a gas, we have an increase in the degree of freedom of particle motion. Particles that are in the gas state are able to move around much, much more than the liquid and the liquids able to move around more than the solid. This increase in the freedom of particle motion also is directly related to an increase in entropy. Intra B is the dispersion of energy, so when you have a solid that energy is not dispersed. It's located in one place a liquid. It's a dispersed a bit more, and the gas. They is able to be dispersed around the entire container, so the dispersion of energy or entropy is directly related to the freedom of particle motion. You imagine when you have an aerosol can of air freshener, it's initially in its liquid state in the can. When you spray it, it begins to go into the room that you're in. First you'll smell it right where you are. But even for those particles are in a space out around the entire room, just as a gas would. And it the freedom of motion of those particles increases the dispersion of the energy increases and the entropy increases. This is one reason why you could never expect all of the air to move to one side of the room, because that air is going to be dispersed throughout the space evenly. It is not going to stay in one location. It is gonna have increased energy Entropy the same with a cup of tea when you have a cup of tea, wouldn't expect half of it to be frozen and then the other half to be boiling because anything that's able to boil or move around the system is gonna move and take up a CZ. Much space is possible. That energy will be dispersed around the system as shown here as opposed to being located in one area. So the entire cup is gonna be more so at it. Even I'm particle movement and not have one area that has a faster particle movement in bowling where the other area has unless so as a recap, the greater the degree of particle motion they get, the greater the entropy that you're expecting to see in that system.

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