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Structure of a virus. To investigate the structure of extremely small objects, such as viruses, the wavelength of probing wave should be about one-tenth the size of the object for sharp images. But as the wavelength gets shorter, the energy of a photon of light gets greater and could damage or destroy the object being studied. One alternative is to use electron matter waves instead of light. Viruses vary considerably in size, but 50 $\mathrm{nm}$ is not unusual. Suppose you want to study such a virus, using a wave of wavelength 5.00 $\mathrm{nm}$ . (a) If you use light of this wavelength, what would be the energy (in eV) of a single photon? (b) If you use an electron of this wavelength, what would be its kinetic energy (in eV)? Is it now clear why matter waves (such as in the electron microscope) are often preferable to electromagnetic waves for studying microscopic objects?

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A) 248.5 $\mathrm{eV}$B) 0.06 $\mathrm{eV}$

Physics 102 Electricity and Magnetism

Physics 103

Chapter 28

Photons, Electrons, and Atoms

Electromagnetic Waves

Atomic Physics

University of Washington

Simon Fraser University

University of Sheffield

Lectures

02:42

Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. It is primarily concerned with the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and the processes by which these arrangements change. The theory of quantum mechanics, a set of mathematical rules that describe the behaviour of matter and its interactions, provides a good model for the description of atomic structure and properties.

03:50

In atomic physics, the Rutherford-Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr model of the atom was first proposed by Niels Bohr in 1913. It was the first quantum theory of the atomic structure, applying the principles of quantum mechanics to the hydrogen atom. The Rutherford-Bohr model is a planetary model in which the electron is assumed to revolve around the nucleus in circular orbits. The Rutherford-Bohr model of the atom was based on Max Planck's quantum theory of radiation, which explained the spectrum of blackbody radiation, and Albert Einstein's theory of the photoelectric effect, which explained the origin of the spectrum of line emission from atoms. The Bohr model of the atom was the first to explain the discrete spectrum of hydrogen and how the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom were split into multiple spectral lines in a phenomenon called the fine structure. It introduced the Bohr radius and the concept of quantum levels to explain the discrete nature of the spectrum of the hydrogen atom. The Bohr model of the atom had a significant influence on the development of quantum mechanics, and was instrumental in the development and validation of quantum mechanics.

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Structure of a virus. To i…

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Structure of a Virus. To i…

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BIO Structure of a Virus. …

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To investigate the structu…

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? Suppose you need to imag…

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Suppose you need to image …

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right in part A. We want to know what the energy is of. Ah, photons having a wavelength five nana meters and energy of a photon is given by H C over Lambda. So if we want to express this in electron volt than we want to use planes constant expressed in you ve got seconds. Okay? And this comes out Tio 248 vv action. So now we want to know what? The energy of an electron having the same way having the same wave length would be. So to do that we combine the two broke the relationship with the relationship between energy and momentum. To get that he is equal to each squared over two and lambda squared To get the units to check out, we need to express H in jewels that seconds massive. An electron is 9.11 time since the negative 31. And lastly, we want to convert this to electron volts. So we divide by 1.6 times 10 to the negative 19 and this comes out too pointy. 06 electron volts. So electrons we'll have a much shorter right side will have a much lower energy, then photons of the same wavelength. And so they're better for image ing because you're less likely to do damage to the to the object you're trying to image.

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