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Suppose you are given a cube made of magnesium (Mg) metal of edge length $1.0 \mathrm{cm}$. (a) Calculate the number of Mg atoms in the cube. (b) Atoms are spherical in shape. Therefore, the Mg atoms in the cube cannot fill all of the available space. If only 74 percent of the space inside the cube is taken up by Mg atoms, calculate the radius in picometers of a Mg atom. (The density of Mg is $1.74 \mathrm{g} / \mathrm{cm}^{3}$ and the volume of a sphere of radius $r$ is $\frac{4}{3} \pi r^{3}$.)

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Chemistry 101

Chapter 3

Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

Chemical reactions and Stoichiometry

University of Central Florida

Rice University

Drexel University

University of Maryland - University College

Lectures

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A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Chemical reactions can be either spontaneous, requiring no input of energy, or non-spontaneous, typically following the input of some type of energy, such as heat, light or electricity. Chemical reactions are usually characterized by a chemical change, and they yield one or more products after the reaction is complete. Chemical reactions are described with chemical equations, which symbolically present the starting materials, end products, and sometimes intermediate products and reaction conditions. Chemical reactions happen at a characteristic reaction rate at a given temperature and chemical concentration. Typically, reaction rates increase with increasing temperature because there is more thermal energy available to reach the activation energy necessary for breaking bonds between atoms.

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In chemistry, a combination reaction is a chemical reaction in which two or more reactants combine to form more than one product. In a decomposition reaction, one reactant splits into two or more products.

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