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The following apparatus can be used to measure atomic and molecular speed. Suppose that a beam of metal atoms is directed at a rotating cylinder in a vacuum. A small opening in the cylinder allows the atoms to strike a target area. Because the cylinder is rotating, atoms traveling at different speeds will strike the target at different positions. In time, a layer of the metal will deposit on the target area, and the variation in its thickness is found to correspond to Maxwell's speed distribution. In one experiment it is found that at $850^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ some bismuth (Bi) atoms struck the target at a point $2.80 \mathrm{cm}$ from the spot directly opposite the slit. The diameter of the cylinder is $15.0 \mathrm{cm}$ and it is rotating at 130 revolutions per second. (a) Calculate the speed (m/s) at which the target is moving. (Hint: The circumference of a circle is given by $2 \pi r,$ where $r$ is the radius.) (b) Calculate the time (in seconds) it takes for the target to travel $2.80 \mathrm{cm}$. (c) Determine the speed of the Bi atoms. Compare your result in (c) with the $u_{\mathrm{rms}}$ of $\mathrm{Bi}$ at $850^{\circ} \mathrm{C} .$ Comment on the difference.

(a) $61.3 \mathrm{m} / \mathrm{s}$(b) $4.57 \times 10^{-4}$(c) $328 \mathrm{m} / \mathrm{s}, 366 \mathrm{m} / \mathrm{s}$

Chemistry 101

Chapter 5

Gases

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Lectures

05:03

In physics, a gas is one of the three major states of matter (the others being liquid and solid). A gas is a fluid that does not support tensile stress, meaning that it is compressible. The word gas is a neologism first used by the early 17th-century Flemish chemist J.B. van Helmont, based on the Greek word ("chaos"), the simplest of all the elemental forms of matter.

04:46

In physics, thermodynamics is the science of energy and its transformations. The three laws of thermodynamics state that energy can be exchanged between physical systems as heat and work; that the total energy of a system can be calculated by adding up all forms of energy in the system; that energy spontaneously flows from being localized to becoming dispersed, spread out, or uniform; and that the entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium.

06:53

The apparatus shown at the…

17:14

You are using a type of ma…

01:30

Figure $\mathrm{P} 35.4$ …

08:47

03:35

The figure shows a schemat…

04:39

03:36

01:52

A glass cylinder of radius…

12:43

Mass Spectrograph. A mass …

06:54

08:24

A mass spectrograph is use…

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