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The following reaction is spontaneous at a certain temperature $T$. Predict the sign of $\Delta S_{\text {surr }}.$

$S_{\text {surroundings}}$ is positive.

Chemistry 102

Chapter 17

Entropy, Free Energy, and Equilibrium

Thermodynamics

Drexel University

University of Kentucky

Brown University

Lectures

00:42

In thermodynamics, the zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

01:47

A spontaneous process is one in which the total entropy of the universe increases. In a spontaneous process, the system will move from an ordered state to a disordered state, such as from ice to water, or from a solid to a gas. The concept of spontaneity was introduced by Rudolf Clausius in 1850.

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04:04

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So now can we do this? We have this picture. And what can we tell from this picture? Uh, we have five yellow spheres and five blue ones combining eso. This might be five carbon atoms combining with five oxygen atoms to make five carbon monoxide molecules. And it's that doesn't tell us directly about the ah, entropy change of the surroundings. But it does tell us about the entropy change for the system. The entropy change for the system is definitely negative. There's a decrease in entropy there. And so when you multiply a negative delta S times temperature and apply that minus sign than that, all together is going to make a positive contribution on Delta G. Uh, but now we know that the it says here the following reaction is spontaneous. And so if it is spontaneous than Delta G is negative. Well, it's not negative because of the entropy change, because Thean trippy change makes a positive contribution when it's multiplied by negative. T said that tells us that Delta H is negative for the system, the negative of a negative, uh, for ah, for the delta H. And so that is going to be a positive temperature has to be positive. That's Kelvin temperature in the lowest value of zero. It can't be negative. So again, the Delta h of the system is negative and the into the sign of the delta s of the surroundings is positive.

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