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The geometries discussed in this chapter all lend themselves to fairly straightforward elucidation of bond angles. The exception is the tetrahedron, because its bond angles are hard to visualize. Consider the $\mathrm{CCl}_{4}$ molecule, which has a tetrahedral geometry and is nonpolar. By equating the bond moment of a particular $\mathrm{C}-\mathrm{Cl}$ bond to the resultant bond moments of the other three $\mathrm{C}-\mathrm{Cl}$ bonds in opposite directions, show that the bond angles are all equal to $109.5^{\circ}.$

The proof that the bond angles in $\mathrm{CCl}_{4}$ are $109.5^{\circ}$ is shown in the solution

Chemistry 101

Chapter 10

Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Geometry and Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals

Chemical Bonding

Molecular Geometry

University of Central Florida

Rice University

Lectures

04:16

In chemistry, a chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between opposite charges, dipole–dipole attraction (see also polarization (chemistry)), or the sharing of electrons as in covalent bonding. The strength of chemical bonds between atoms ranges from the weakest to the strongest. Many types of bond exist between atoms, such as single, double, and triple bonds; and bonds of particular strength, including ionic and covalent bonds. A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms. This attraction may be seen as the result of different behaviors of the outermost or valence electrons of atoms. These behaviors merge into each other seamlessly in various circumstances, so that there is no clear line to be drawn between them. In general, strong or polar bonds are the result of the electron cloud of one atom being drawn towards the electron cloud of another atom, such that the negative or positive charge of the electron clouds increases. A bond is an attraction between atoms. This attraction may be seen as the result of different behaviors of the outermost or valence electrons of atoms. These behaviors merge into each other seamlessly in various circumstances, so that there is no clear line to be drawn between them. In general, strong or polar bonds are the result of the electron cloud of one atom being drawn towards the electron cloud of another atom, such that the negative or positive charge of the electron clouds increases

03:47

In chemistry, a molecular geometry is the geometric configuration of the atoms that constitute a molecule. It is the arrangement of the atoms around one another in three-dimensional space along with the bond lengths and bond angles between the atoms. The molecule's molecular geometry can be deduced from the chemical structure of the molecule and the physical laws that govern the movement of molecules. From the molecular geometry, the properties of the molecule (such as bond length, bond angle, shape, and torsion) can be deduced.

00:42

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02:44

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01:37

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in order to prove that the bond angle of the Tetra feudal structure is 100 9.5. We're going to have to use a little bit of mathematical thinking and mathematical reasoning to explain how we get that bond angle. So let's look at the structures for carbon tetrachloride on this first structure on the left will have a carbon, and we have four. Chlorine is that are bonded to our central carbon, which is the same on the structure of the right. We're going to denote that this angle right here as Fada, which is our bond angle, and we're going to denote the bond moment of a carbon chloride bond as data. Excuse me, Delta Times Co sign of data. And if we look at the structure on the right, what we're saying is that the bond moment is 100 and 80 minus R value of fada. So if we see on this structure on the left, we have three bond moments, so we have three Delta Times co sign beta values. So now we can do a little bit of mathematics to understand how we get our bond angle. We're going to get that Delta is equal to three Delta Co. Sign of Fada, and now we want the coastline of Fada by itself. So we're going to get that. The coastline of Fada is equal to 1/3 and now we'll do a little bit of trigonometry to get data by itself. We'll get that data is equal to 70.5. But remember, from our structures before we know that this bond moment or bond angle is equal to 180 degrees, minus data. So so to get our bond angle will take 180 minus for value of Fada. So we will get 180 minus 70.5, and we'll get 109.5. So what this means is that all the bond angles in carbon 10 tra chloride or in any Tetra Futral structure is 100 and 9.5 degrees

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