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The naturally occurring radioactive isotope 232 Th does not make good fission fuel, because it has an even number of neutrons; however, it can be bred into a suitable fuel (much as $^{238} \mathrm{U}$ is bred into 239 $\mathrm{P}$ ). (a) What are $Z$ and $N$ for 232 Th?(b) Write the reaction equation for neutron captured by 232 Th and identify the nuclide $A X$ produced in$n+232 \mathrm{Th} \rightarrow^{A} X+\gamma$(c) The product nucleus $\beta^{-}$ decays, as does its daughter Write the decay equations for each, and identify the final nucleus.(d) Confirm that the final nucleus has an odd number of neutrons, making it a better fission fuel.(e) Look up the half-life of the final nucleus to see if it lives long enough to be a useful fuel.

a. the value of $\mathrm{Z}$ is $90$ and $\mathrm{N}$ is $142$b. the product of $^{A} X^{\text {is }} \stackrel{233}{90} \mathrm{Th}_{143}$c. $_{91}^{233} P a_{142} \rightarrow_{92}^{23} U_{141}+\beta^{-}+\overline{v}_{e}$d. The value of $\mathrm{N}$ for $_{92}^{233} U_{141}$ is 141 which is odd.e. it is considered as a useful nucleus.

Physics 103

Chapter 32

Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics

Nuclear Physics

Simon Fraser University

University of Sheffield

McMaster University

Lectures

02:51

In physics, wave optics is…

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Interference is a phenomen…

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If a shortage in worldwide…

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The last unknown element b…

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The isotope $^{238} \mathr…

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Nuclei differ in their sta…

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In a radioactive decay ser…

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The polonium isotope $^{21…

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The strong neutron excess …

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Thorium-232 ( $^{232}$ Th)…

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(a) In $\alpha$ decay of, …

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Write nuclear equations to…

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01:56

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Thorium-232 is an $\alpha$…

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A breeder nuclear reactor …

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plutonium can be manufactured from uranium through the following set of reactions. First, we start with our uranium to 38 nuclei and we bombard it with a neutron. Now, in order to find the missing particle, we first need the atomic number of uranium, which is 92. And then we add up the mast numbers on the left set equal to the mass numbers on the right. So we have to 39 equals. Now we're told we're producing gamma radiations. So gamma, if you recall, has no mess and no charge. So in the atomic number spot, we put a zero. Um so now we know that our 2 39 has to equal some number plus zero, so that's gonna be to 39 on the right. And for our atomic numbers, 92 plus zero is 92 and what number plus zero is 92? So that remains 92 which indicates that our remaining particle is a uranium to 39 nuclei. In our next reaction, our uranium to 39 which we now know has an atomic number 92 decays by beta decay. And we're left with a Neptune IAM particle So we need to find the mass number in the atomic number for our Neptune IAM particle. Well, on the left hand side, we have to 39 for our mass number. So on the right hand side, on a product side, we also have to have 2 39 and to 39 plus zero is in fact, to 39 on our react. Inside, our atomic number is 92. So what number minus one is 92 Nep Tony, um which you could also, um, Neptune iam could you could look it up on the periodic table and you would find it has atomic number 93 or simply doing the math from the reaction. You also come up with atomic number 93 for Neptune IAM. Now, in our next reaction are Neptune IAM, which is 2 39 93 So I'm going to write that in 2 39 93 um, decays by baited decay to form plutonium. And we, um, set our mass number on the left of to 39 equal to the mass numbers on the right. So that's also going to equal to 39 to 39 plus zero from our beta particles to 39. Our atomic number is going to be some number minus one Equalling 93. So that is 94 um, which is the atomic number for plutonium on the periodic table. Now, once we have our plutonium are plutonium can undergo fission. Um, let me graham the numbers again to 39 94 for our plutonium 2 39 94 can undergo fission when it's bombarded with a neutron. And when that occurs, um, we will produce two more nuclei. We have no infer information to indicate which nuclei are produced and it produces two neutrons. And in the process, in the fission reaction, we release a significant amount of energy. So those are the reactions that can be followed, um, to manufacture plutonium from uranium.

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