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There is a maximum depth at which a diver can breathe through a snorkel tube (Fig. 13.42$)$ , because as the depth increases, so does the pressure difference, which the difference, if any.tends to collapse the diver's lungs. since the snorkel connects the air in the lungs to the atmosphere at the surface, the pressure inside the lungs is atmospheric pressure. What is the external-internal pressure difference when the diver's lungs are at a depth of 6.1 $\mathrm{m}$ (about 20 $\mathrm{ft}$ ? Assume that the diver is in fresh-water. (A scuba diver breathing from compressed air tanks can operate at greater depths than can a snorkeler, since the pressure of the air inside the scuba diver's lungs increases to match the external pressure of the water.)

$59.78 \times 10^{3} P a$

Physics 101 Mechanics

Chapter 13

Fluid Mechanics

Temperature and Heat

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all right. So when you dive into water, basically, however far below the surface you go, you're going to add amount of pressure. That's proportional to how far you you went. And that all adds on top of the atmospheric pressure. So if we were certain step below the water in order to calculate the total pressure, we would need to know the pressure due to the water and the pressure due to the atmosphere. However, in this case, we're interested in the pressure difference arising inside someone's lungs if they're snorkeling. And in this case, the pressure in their lungs is fixed to be the atmospheric pressure and because of the snorkel connecting their lungs to the service and the pressure outside is the atmospheric pressure, plus the pressure due to their death in the water. And so if we want to know the difference, we simply take the pressure, the total pressure in the water and subtract off the pressure from the atmosphere. And basically that ends up just being road gh, where each is the depth below the surface of the water and then city of water is tend to the three kilograms per meter cubed G is 9.8 meters per second squared and each was given to be 6.1 years. So this is the pressure difference in the lungs, and the concern is that if you go too deep on this, pressure difference will get to a point where the lungs clocks.

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