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Problem 8 Medium Difficulty

Use representations [A] through [I] in Figure P11.8 to answer questions a-f about the formation of an aqueous solution of potassium chloride from potassium $[\mathrm{K}(s),$ purple spheres] and chlorine $\left[\mathrm{Cl}_{2}(g),$ green spheres]. \right.
a. Which process depicts the formation of a compound from its elements?
b. Which processes require the breaking of bonds?
c. Which processes depict transfer of electrons?
d. Which representation illustrates ion-dipole interactions?
e. Which processes require the input of energy to overcome intermolecular forces?
F. Which processes are exothermic?

Answer

A) D; B) B, D, G; C) A, H; D) C; E) E, I; F) D, F, H

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Video Transcript

This is problem 11.8 in chemistry. This science and context at the end of chapter 11. Okay. And it asks us to match various diagrams to thes descriptions. Okay, so a is asking which process with just one wish process shows the formation of a compound from its elements. Okay, Come. And so in all of these diagrams, I only c d and F r as formations. Okay, but we're asking from the elements specifically. Okay, so it's on Lee D. Okay, so we're going from, um elemental potassium and elemental chlorine to become the potassium chlorine salt. Okay. A B asks which processes air showing breaking of bonds. Okay, so either an ionic or co Vaillant bond. Okay, So be we're breaking the covalin bond between chlorine to produce to several chlorine atoms. So be he is breaking bonds. D is also breaking bonds. So we're also going from two chlorine atoms that are bonded together, and we have to break those bonds to produce the potassium chlorine salt. Okay, so d is also I'm one of them. Let's see e or just breaking inter molecular forces here. F is information. OK, g g. We're going from the chlorine, potassium salt to the separate ions, the chlorine ions in the capacity miles. OK, so what we're breaking here in this case is I'm on Ionic Bond. Pace of G is also one of them, okay? And I I is not considered breaking bonds because what they're trying to show here, and it's kind of hard to see, but whether trying to show is that we have solid potassium and are going to the gashes. Potassium. Okay, so this is a phase change. There is a breaking of bonds. Okay, See, is asking for the transfer of electrons. Okay, so something is losing or gaining electrons. Okay. And so for a what it's showing is the potassium going from its elemental state to its positive ion state. So this is, um, losing an electron. Right? Okay, that's a OK. And then here we have chlorine. Where we're going from elemental chlorine to the Korean Ion. Okay, so that's gaining an electron. Okay, so that's eight. Okay, um, dese is asking which, um, diagram shows an ion die. Cool interaction. Okay, um, and I see that See is an eye on diable interactions. We have here a negative ion and a positive ion and then water surrounding them. Okay. And so all of the water is attracted to the negative and positive because water is polar, right? And so we haven't I on. And then the dye pull interaction between the water molecules and those ions. Okay, so this is going to be C. Okay. And e, you might think that this is also an ion diable interaction. But we're home. This is only interaction between water molecules, so there are no ions to interact. So this is just a dime full diable interaction rather than an ion dipole interruption. Okay, so that's it for d E. It's asking for which show and in the that are required to have an input of energy overcome inter molecular forces. Okay. And so I see that e we were talking about it just now. That e is water molecules. Okay, that have a diable diable interaction on their hydrogen bonds. Specifically. Okay. And remember, I m s r inter molecular forces forces between molecules. So they're not call valin bonds or Ionic bonds there. The forces that attract different molecules to eat, okay and so on, and it has to be a process. So C is not really a process is just showing ion dipole interaction. But he is a process where we go from water molecules that are interacting with each other to water molecules that are not so e is the answer. One of the answers for E because it requires an input of energy to break thes hydrogen bonds. Okay, and then another one is I Okay, so remember I talked about I earlier. I is potassium solid potassium going into ashes state. Okay, so we have to break inter molecular, uh, inter molecular forces between the separate potassium Adams. But they're not bonded to each other. They're just They're just have enough inter molecular forces to be in a solid state. And we have to break those intra molecular forces for them to become a fascist state. Basis e and I are the answers for, um Question e. Okay. And then finally, for a question, F it asks which of the following are exo thermic reactions. OK, so x a thermic reactions. Meaning that we release energy. Okay. And in the book, it talks about formation of salt. So any information of salt will always release interview He said he is a formacion of assault from its elements. So use X of thermic okay. And F is also information of assault. It's information of salt from its ions, but it's still exit 30. Huh? So that's, uh so d e and F are both exo thermic, Okay? And there is one more, and that is HH. Okay. H is going from chlorine to ionic chlorine. Okay. And the energy state of chlorine is higher than the energy state of the chlorine I on. Okay, the chlorine ion is much more stable in its negative state s. So this transition from ah, high energy to a more low, stable energy recalls the release of energy, right? So eight is also age is also ex affirm it. Okay? I mean, that is how you answer 11.8

University of Maryland - University College
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