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Use the data in BWGHT to answer this question.(i) How many women are in the sample, and how many report smoking during pregnancy?(ii) What is the average number of cigarettes smoked per day? Is the average a good measure of the"typical" woman in this case? Explain.(iii) Among women who smoked during pregnancy, what is the average number of cigarettessmoked per day? How does this compare with your answer from part (ii), and why?(iv) Find the average of fatheduc in the sample. Why are only 1,192 observations used to computethis average?(v) Report the average family income and its standard deviation in dollars.
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all right. Moving on to the second computer exercise. When did you use the data set called B D l G H T twins of the question. So first of all, we go the official website, download the data set and imported in states which have done right here and before we begin. As we've always said, we hit the command described and see what we're dealing with. What a data set is kind of observation would have been what kind of variables we have. So here we see that we have 1388 observation. All refers to women as we will see, and we have 14 underlying variables. Some of the variables been in use for this exercise is six is the number of cigarettes smoked per day while pregnant. Of course, it implies that we're talking about a woman was pregnant, on the other hand, were used. We're gonna use fem thing, which is the 1988 family, incoming, thousands of dollars, and the father at you. Others years of education that's a discreet variable is the number that years of education in take on Lee natural numbers. All right, let's start with part a How many women are in the sample and how many reports smoking during pregnancy? Well, as we said, the number of women in the sand boys equals the number of observation. So we have 1388 women to sample now. How many reports smoking during pregnancy? Well, one would be tempted to say he'd let's count the number of six. Right? But that's not correct. We need to count number of cigs. Who could that pounds if cigs a great 10? Because we're being asked how many reports smoking during pregnancy. So it has to be the number of this very wise security rating. Zero, and we get the number 212 women reported smoking during pregnancy. Now, let's see what kind of percentage this is 212 divided, but number of women times 100 uh, 15.3% of women before to smoking in this sample. Okay, hard be. What is the average number of cigarettes smoked per day? Is the average a good measure of the typical woman in this case? Explain. Okay. To find the average we're gonna use summarize command the very boards six I'm gonna look at it in detail. I'll explain why when you look at it in detail. All right. So the mean the average number of cigarettes smoked per dates 2.1, roughly 2.1 cigarette smoke per day. However, why is this a bad measure? As we can see here, the median, which is a much more robust measure of central tendency, it zero. And the reason why this is a bad measure is that, um, more than I mean what we say before the this includes 1000 the total minus 212. That's folks are 1176 women who did not smoke, right? So reporting just the average masks the fact that almost 85% of the women and dissemble did not smoke I make more sense to say that the typical woman does not smoke it all. As the medium reveals here. Um and indeed, you know the media number zero, this is this is the right answer to parliament does not smoke. And this is a misleading measure of central tendency in this case. But in part C, let's read reports, he says, Among women who smoked during pregnancy. What is the average number of cigarettes smoked per day? How does this compare with the answer in the previous part? Okay, now we're gonna do what we did before my cigs if cigs Britain's here. So with this conditions the way impose, we want to compute the average and old measures on Lee for women who smoke. And here we'll see that, Uh, look at that. Now the averages 13.7 cigarette smoke per day. Right? That's a huge difference. And what does this mean? It means that now the average of cigs over women is computed excluding that 1176 zeros that we had before. So think about it when we're computing the average summing over the values and divided by the total number. We were something zeros. And this brings the average down, right? We're something's irritable. You still divide with the same number by a large number. The ever says to be global. Here We're only something positive values of cigarettes and we divide by the correct moment of observation. And this is why it makes more sense to say that the average woman smokes a little bit placed on a pack of cigarettes per day. Now in party, uh, find the average of father education in the sample. Why only 1192 observations used to compute the average? Let's see why and summarize. It was very cold tube with details. See that the average years of education 13.1 meaning slightly more than a high school education but less than full time college run 13 years and indeed, on Lee 1192 Observation. There you've been used. No, not the total number that is 1288. Let's go the data browser and see what's going on with this valuable further education here. Oh, all right, well, we can see that there's some missing values. Remember this, uh dot over here does not represent zero value, but a missing about you have no value not available to be in a We have quite a few missing values, and this means that for whatever reason, uh, these observations were not reported so either the woman asked. No report. Father's education, maybe she wasn't aware of that, has been given accurate answer. But for whatever reason, we don't have this data point. So stay that in every other statistical software is gonna exclude this observation from his computations. Okay. Now, for the final part. Wanted to report the average family income, and it's standard deviation in dollars. Why? We're being asked to reporting dollars. Well, remember, So before the variable family income, Fleming, the 1st 1 is the family income in thousands of dollars. All right, so we do summarized coming. We don't have to do detail just for a change was not doing detail. We see that. That mean is 29.3 Let's see. But this isn't thousands of dollars. So when have you know the reporting dollars? We need two multiplied by thousands. So the mean would be 29,000 70 in $27.29,027 dollars dollars And the standard deviation accordingly will be $18,739. Right? And this is a silencer
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