Cyanogen, (CN)_, has been observed in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, and in the gases of interstellar nebulas. On Earth, it is used as a welding gas and a fumigant. In its reaction with fluorine gas, carbon tetrafluoride and nitrogen trifluoride gases are produced. What mass $(\mathrm{g})$ of carbon tetrafluoride forms when 60.0 $\mathrm{g}$ of each reactant is used?

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Write balanced chemical equations corresponding to each of the following descriptions: (a) Solid calcium carbide, $\mathrm{CaC}_{2}$ , reacts with water to form an aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide and acetylene gas, $\mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{2}$ . (b) When solid potassium chlorate is heated, it decomposes to form solid potassium chloride and oxygen gas. (c) Solid zinc metal reacts with sulfuric acid to form hydrogen gas and an aqueous solution of zinc sulfate. (d) When liquid phosphorus trichloride is added to water, it reacts to form aqueous phosphorous acid, $\mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{PO}_{3}(a q)$, and aqueous hydrochloric acid. (e) When hydrogen sulfide gas is passed over solid hot iron(III) hydroxide, the resulting reaction produces solid iron(II) sulfide and gaseous water.

Challenge In the formation of acid rain, sulfur dioxide $\left(\mathrm{SO}_{2}\right)$ reacts with

oxygen and water in the air to form sulfuric acid $\left(\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{SO}_{4}\right) .$ Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. If 2.50 $\mathrm{g}$ of $\mathrm{SO}_{2}$ reacts with excess oxygen and water, how much $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{SO}_{4}$ , in grams, is produced?

Phosphorus (P. ) is commercially prepared by heating a mixture of calcium phosphate $\left(\mathrm{Ca} \mathrm{SiO}_{3}\right),$ sand $\left(\mathrm{SiO}_{2}\right)$

and coke $(\mathrm{C})$ in an electric furnace. The process involves

two reactions.

\begin{equation}

2 \mathrm{Ca}_{3}\left(\mathrm{PO}_{4}\right)_{2}(\mathrm{s})+6 \mathrm{SiO}_{2}(\mathrm{s}) \rightarrow 6 \mathrm{CaSiO}_{3}(\mathrm{l})+\mathrm{P}_{4} \mathrm{O}_{10}(\mathrm{g})

\end{equation}

\begin{equation}

\mathrm{P}_{4} \mathrm{O}_{10}(\mathrm{g})+10 \mathrm{C}(\mathrm{s}) \rightarrow \mathrm{P}_{4}(\mathrm{g})+10 \mathrm{CO}(\mathrm{g})

\end{equation}

The P $_{4} \mathrm{O}_{10}$ produced in the first reaction reacts with an

excess of coke $(\mathrm{C})$ in the second reaction. Determine

the theoretical yield of $\mathrm{P}_{4}$ if 250.0 $\mathrm{g}$ of $\mathrm{Ca}_{3}\left(\mathrm{PO}_{4}\right)_{2}$ and 400.0 $\mathrm{g}$ of $\mathrm{SiO}_{2}$ are heated. If the actual yield of $\mathrm{P}_{4}$ is

$45.0 \mathrm{g},$ determine the percent yield of $\mathrm{P}_{4} .$