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When baking soda (sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate, $\mathrm{NaHCO}_{3}$ ) is heated, it releases carbon dioxide gas, which is responsible for the rising of cookies, donuts, and bread. (a) Write a balanced equation for the decomposition of the compound (one of the products is $\mathrm{Na}_{2} \mathrm{CO}_{3}$ ). (b) Calculate the mass of $\mathrm{NaHCO}_{3}$ required to produce $20.5 \mathrm{g}$ of $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$

a) $2 \mathrm{NaHCO}_{3}(\mathrm{s}) \rightarrow \mathrm{Na}_{2} \mathrm{CO}_{3}(\mathrm{s})+\mathrm{CO}_{2}(\mathrm{g})+\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}(\mathrm{g})$b) $78.3 \mathrm{g}$

Chemistry 101

Chapter 3

Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

Chemical reactions and Stoichiometry

University of Central Florida

Rice University

University of Toronto

Lectures

04:02

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Chemical reactions can be either spontaneous, requiring no input of energy, or non-spontaneous, typically following the input of some type of energy, such as heat, light or electricity. Chemical reactions are usually characterized by a chemical change, and they yield one or more products after the reaction is complete. Chemical reactions are described with chemical equations, which symbolically present the starting materials, end products, and sometimes intermediate products and reaction conditions. Chemical reactions happen at a characteristic reaction rate at a given temperature and chemical concentration. Typically, reaction rates increase with increasing temperature because there is more thermal energy available to reach the activation energy necessary for breaking bonds between atoms.

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In chemistry, a combination reaction is a chemical reaction in which two or more reactants combine to form more than one product. In a decomposition reaction, one reactant splits into two or more products.

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Answer for a we have to write a balance equation for the decomposition of the baking soda, so the balance equation is 2 n, a h c, o 3 in a solid state and in a 2 co, 3, solid state plus c, o 2 plus h, 2, o. So this is the balanced equation for the decomposition of the baking soda here in reactant. Number mole of na is 2, and here is also 2, and here h is 1, and here is here is 2 coefficient, because there is coefficient to h 2, and here is also h- 2, hydrogen 2 and number of carbon atom here, 2, and here also 12- And a number of oxygen atoms in reactant side is 3, and here number of oxygen atoms in reactant side is 2 into 36 and in product side is also 63 here, 2 and 5 and 1 is here 6. So this is balanced chemical equation for the decomposition of the baking soda solution for part b. The mass of c o 2 is m. Mass of c o 2 is equal to 20.5 gram and we have to find the we have to find the mass of we have to find the mass of n a h c, o 3 need to produce given amount of c o 2. So first we will calculate the number of moles of c o 2 point. The molar mass of c, o 2 isco 2 is is equal to molar mass of c plus 2 into molarmass of oxygen. Molar mass of carbon plus 2 into molar mass of oxygen is equal to by putting values we have 12 molar mass of carbon is 12.011 gram per mole plus 2 into 15.999. Gram per mole is equal to 44.009 gram per mole, so the number of moles of co 2 is number of moles. Of co. 2 is mc 2. Sorry number of mole of c 2, so no 2 is equal to m 2 divided by mass of c 2. Divided by molar mass of c, o 2 is equal to 20, given mass is 20.5 gr of co. 2 divided by molar mass of co. 2 is 44.009. Gram per mole is equal to gram. Gram cancel and left here, small 0.466 mole, so we here find mole next step is step to is since 2 moles of sin, 2 moles of breaking soda in a co 3 are needed to produce to produce 1 mole of c o twothe number of n a H c, o 3 needed to produce to produce 0.466 mole moles of c o 2 is so a number of moles of n. A h c. O 3 is equal to number of mole of c o 2 into 2 moles of n a aho 3 divided by 1 mole of c o 2 is equal to 0.466 mole of 02 into 2 mole of n, a h c, o 3 divided by 1. Mole of c o 2 is equal to 0.932 mole of n, a h c threethe molar mass of mass of n, a h c, o 3 is mass of n a h c. O 3 is equal to molar mass of n, a plus molar mass of h, plus molar mass of carbon plus 3 into molar. Mass of mass of oxygen is equal to 22.990 gram per mole plus 1.008 gram per mole plus 212.011 gram per mole plus 3 into 15.99. Gram per mole is equal to 84.006 gram per mole. So therefore, so, therefore, the mass of the mass of n, a h c 3 needed is there. It is a mass of n. A t. O 3 is equal to number of moles of n, a ah co 3 into molar mass of n. A h c, o 3 is equal to 0.932 mole into molar mass of hco. 3 is 84.006. Gram per mole is equal to 78.294 gram, so it is approximately equal to 78.3 gram.

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