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Problem 115

Which process is spontaneous at 298 K?
$$\begin{array}{l}{\text { a. } \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}(l) \longrightarrow \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}(g, 1 \text { atm })} \\ {\text { b. } \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}(l) \longrightarrow \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}(g, 0.10 \mathrm{atm})} \\ {\text { c. } \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}(l) \longrightarrow \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}(g, 0.010 \mathrm{atm})}\end{array}$$

C. The reaction is spontaneous. Since the vapor pressure of water at room temperature is 23.78 mmHg, converting this gives us 0.03129 atm. Since the desired pressure of 0.010 atm) is less than the equilibrium vapor pressure of water, the reaction is spontaneous.

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