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Write Lewis structures for the following molecules and ions: $(\mathrm{a}) \mathrm{NCl}_{3},(\mathrm{b}) \mathrm{OCS},(\mathrm{c}) \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{2},(\mathrm{d}) \mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{COO}^{-}$(e) $\mathrm{CN}^{-},$ (f) $\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{CH}_{2} \mathrm{NH}_{3}^{+}$

a) answer is structureb) answer is structurec) answer is structured) answer is structuree) answer is structuref) answer is structure

Chemistry 101

Chapter 9

Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts

Chemical Bonding

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Lectures

04:16

In chemistry, a chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between opposite charges, dipole–dipole attraction (see also polarization (chemistry)), or the sharing of electrons as in covalent bonding. The strength of chemical bonds between atoms ranges from the weakest to the strongest. Many types of bond exist between atoms, such as single, double, and triple bonds; and bonds of particular strength, including ionic and covalent bonds. A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms. This attraction may be seen as the result of different behaviors of the outermost or valence electrons of atoms. These behaviors merge into each other seamlessly in various circumstances, so that there is no clear line to be drawn between them. In general, strong or polar bonds are the result of the electron cloud of one atom being drawn towards the electron cloud of another atom, such that the negative or positive charge of the electron clouds increases. A bond is an attraction between atoms. This attraction may be seen as the result of different behaviors of the outermost or valence electrons of atoms. These behaviors merge into each other seamlessly in various circumstances, so that there is no clear line to be drawn between them. In general, strong or polar bonds are the result of the electron cloud of one atom being drawn towards the electron cloud of another atom, such that the negative or positive charge of the electron clouds increases

09:12

In chemistry, the octet rule is a rule that states that all atoms prefer to have eight electrons in their valence shell (outermost electron shell). A stable atom will have eight electrons in its valence shell, and will tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to achieve this configuration. The octet rule is an empirical observation rather than a fundamental principle, and hence its applicability is limited to the realm of valence electrons. The rule was proposed by the English chemist John Alexander Reina Newlands in 1875 and was named the "octet rule" by Gilbert N. Lewis in 1918.

03:50

Draw Lewis structures for …

02:17

Write Lewis structures for…

06:37

05:10

Write a Lewis structure fo…

01:29

01:56

Write the Lewis structures…

02:33

01:28

Hello says they will be looking at how to draw Lewis structures for various compounds. So here we have a compound and the first thing you should probably dio is to count up how many electrons it has. So nitrogen, if you look at your periodic table, has five. Chlorine has seven. There are three of them, so three times seven is 21 plus five is 26 electrons. Now you should probably look at how many you need, So nitrogen needs eight. Chlorine needs. Eight. There are three of us, so you need 32 electrons and an easy way. Teoh, Find out how Maney bonds you need. It's attract hum, many you need from Hominy have and divided by two. So in this case, we need three bonds. So let's draw structure so we'll have nitrogen in the middle. How about it's gonna be bonded 23 coins and then I mean are going to felt make sure that every atom has a knock tent. So you're going toe ad electrons as necessary. And then to check your work, he could just go back and count up the electrons that are here. You have to make sure that it's the same as what you started with. Okay, now let's go on, Teoh. Next one. So let's dio this compound. So oxygen has six electrons. Carbon has four and sulfur also has six in the violence. So if you count it all up, that is 16 electrons. And now let's take a look at what we need. Oxygen needs eight. Carbon needs eight. Sulphur needs eight. So we need 24 electrons. So 24 chuck and subtract 16 over to, and you will see that we need four bonds. So Lance Straw. So we have an oxygen here, carbon and the sulphur gonna add four bonds. And as you can see, Carbon already has a full octet with those two bucks, those four bonds. So we're just gonna add some lone pairs on the oxygen and sulfur. Everything has a knock time. And if you want to check you work, count up the electrons and make sure it's the same as what you started with. Okay, Now let's do hydrogen peroxide. So hydrogen has one electron there. Two of thumb and oxygen has six electrons, and there two of them. So that's two times six is 12 plus two. 14 electrons. And now let's take a look at how many we need so to hydrogen needs to, and there are two of them, and then oxygen needs eight and there to welcome. So two times a 16 2 times two is 4 16 plus fours. 20. And now let's see how maney bonds we need. So 20 subtracted and subtract. 14. Divide by two, and that will be three bonds. And so remember that hydrogen can only have two electrons in its valence, so hydrogen can only form one bond. So about the oxygen's need to be connected together, or if when oxygen is coming connected to both hydrogen, it can't connect of last oxygen. So if you look at that, we add our lone pairs and, well, look at that. Here we go. Everything has a full valence, and if you count up all of Alec Trans, you've got 14. So OK, so now let's Teoh this molecule. So we have hydrogen has one electron, and there are three of them. Carbon has four electrons, and there are two of them. Oxygen has six electrons, and there are two of them, and then, since it's a negative charge. That means that we have added an extra electron in there. So let's think about this. So three times on his three two times four is eight. So three plus eight is 11. Two times six is 12 11 plus 12 is 23 plus one is 24 electrons. Now let's take a look at how money we need. So they're hydrogen needs to, and there are three, so carbon needs eight on there, too. Oxygen also needs eight, and there are two, so three times to a six to tempt. Eight is 16 so 22 two times a 16 22 plus 16 is 38. So let's do 38 and subtract 24 and do that over to. So that would be seven bonds so hydrogen can Onley make one bond and carbon, since it has four electrons and it needs another four could make four runs. So we have 1234 bonds right now, and then we need toe add three more, and we have just to oxygen's left. So if so, the hydrogen ins have filled valence. So does the to do the two carbons. Now let's add lone pairs to the oxygen's in Seoul, if you can, about uncounted up, this should have a negative one charge and the it should have 24 electrons and an easy way to check if you have a negative charge. If you look at this, oxygen started out with six electrons, but now you can. If you look at its formal charge, you will notice that has a negative one charge. So let's go on to the next one. Let's do it cyanide. So carbon has four electrons. Nitrogen has five. And then we added one, cause we added a negative charge. So has a total of 10 electrons. Now let's take a look at how Maney needs so carbon needs. Eight Nitrogen needs. Eight. That's a total of 16 electrons. So let's do 16 minus 10 over to, and you will get three bonds and there's on Lee and there are only two atoms, so it couldn't ask to be between it. And so we had loan Paris Tim, give each one of Phil octet, and you can check your work by counting up the electrons and making sure that there is a total of 10. Another way is to look at this carbon. And if you know about for all charges, you'll notice that this one has a negative one formal charge. Okay, and now let's do one more. So, um, let's do this one. So if you count up the hydrogen ins, each hydrogen has one electron and there are a total of eight. There are two carbons, each with her for their two of them. And there's a nitrogen, which has five. And then, with the positive charge, means we lost one electron. So let's add it up. So we've got eight plus 8 16 plus 5 21 minus 1 20 electrons. Now let's see how money we need. Hudgens need to and their eight of them. Cartman needs eight in there. Two of them nitrogen needs eight. And there's one of, um, so 16 plus 16 is 32 plus eight is 40 so 40 minus 20 over to will be five bonds. Okay, so let's get I meant 10 bonds. 10 10 10 10 bots. Okay, so let's get to drawing. So we have a carbon and let's bond it to the three hydrogen ins and a car. Another carbon responded to you two more Hodgins and we have 123456 bonds Right now. So, seven now, until we need three more to the last three hydrogen ins. And if you look at everything, you'll notice everything already has a full octet. So no need for any more known Paris. And to check your work, you can just count em up. We need 20 electrons, and so and this is a positive charge. And one way you can check if data has a positive charge is if you noticed this nitrogen. This nitrogen has a plus one formal charge.

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