Meet students taking the same courses as you are!Join a Numerade study group on Discord

Chapter 7

Critical Reasoning

Educators


Problem 1

In $1989,$ corporate tax rates in some regions of the United States fell to their lowest level in 15 years, while the rates in other regions reached new highs. In $1974,$ similar conditions led to a large flight of companies from regions with unfavorable corporate tax policies to regions with favorable policies. There was, however, considerably less corporate flight in 1989 Which of the following, if true about $1989,$ most plausibly accounts for the finding that there was less corporate flight in $1989 ?$
A. The regions with the most favorable corporate tax policies had many of the same types of corporations as did those with unfavorable tax policies, but this was not true in 1974.
B. In contrast to $1974,$ office rental costs in the regions with the most favorable corporate tax policies were significantly higher than rental costs in other areas of the country.
C. In contrast to $1974,$ in $1989,$ the areas with the most favorable corporate tax policies reaped the most benefit from tax incentives, although the tax codes were particularly difficult to decipher.
D. Tax incentives offered by foreign countries were higher in 1989 than in 1974.
E. Individual tax incentives in the areas with favorable corporate tax policies were slightly lower than they were 15 years earlier in areas with favorable corporate tax policies.

Check back soon!

Problem 2

Aramayo: Our federal government seems to function most efficiently when decision-making responsibilities are handled by only a few individuals. Therefore, our government should consolidate its leadership and move away from a decentralized representative democracy.
Tello: But moving our government in this direction could violate our constitutional mission to provide government of, for, and by the people.
Which of the following statements describes Tello's response to Aramayo?
A. Tello contradicts the reasoning used by Aramayo.
B. Tello uncovers an assumption used in Aramayo's reasoning.
C. Tello brings up a possible negative consequence of accepting Aramayo's argument.
D. Tello reveals the circular reasoning used by Aramayo.
E. Tello shows that Aramayo overgeneralizes a very special situation.

Check back soon!

Problem 3

Business computer systems are designed to make workers more productive by automating a portion of the work that must be completed in a business process. As a result, the employee is free to perform more tasks that require human attention. Although productivity may be lost during a learning period, many businesses experience dramatic gains in productivity after installing a new computer system. While discussing the connection between productivity gains and computer systems, a well-respected business journal recently stated that the person who serves as the Chief Information Officer is the consummate business computer system.
By comparing a Chief Information Officer to business computer systems, the journal implicitly argues that
A. Chief Information Officers should always communicate the value of computer systems to their companies\
B. the productivity of a company can be increased through the hiring of a Chief Information Officer
C. many companies have not improved their productivity with new computer systems
D. Chief Information Officers are more effective than are new computer systems
E. the impact of a Chief Information Officer on a company's productivity is difficult to measure

Check back soon!

Problem 4

Whenever Joe does his laundry at the Main Street Laundromat, the loads turn out cleaner than they do when he does his laundry at the Elm Street Laundromat. Laundry done at the Main Street Laundromat is cleaner because the machines at the Main Street Laundromat use more water per load than do those at the Elm Street Laundromat.
Which of the following statements, if true, helps support the conclusion above?
A. The clothes washed at the Elm Street Laundromat were, overall, less clean than those washed at the Main Street Laundromat.
B. Joe uses the same detergent at both laundromats.
C. The machines at the Oak Street Laundromat use twice as much water as do those at the Main Street Laundromat.
D. Joe does three times as much laundry at the Main Street Laundromat as he does at the Elm Street Laundromat.
E. Joe tends to do his dirtier laundry at the Elm Street Laundromat

Check back soon!

Problem 5

According to the United States Postal Service bureau of information, the rate of complaints concerning late delivery was 30 times higher in 1991 than in $1964 .$ Because the United States Postal Service changed neighborhood routes from a multiple-truck delivery system to a single truck delivery system between 1964 and $1991,$ the enormous increase in complaints must be a result of this systematic change.
Which of the following, if true, weakens the conclusion drawn above?
A. In $1991,$ most late-mail complaints were reported to the appropriate United States Postal Service office, whereas in 1964 most were not.
B. Even in a multiple-truck delivery system, certain letters will arrive late.
C. According to the United States Postal Service bureau of information, most of the complaints concerning late delivery in 1991 were about registered mail.
D. The bulk amount of mail processed by the United States Postal Service was not much larger in 1991 than it was in $1964,$ before the systemic change occurred.
E. The change in neighborhood routes from a multiple-truck to a single-truck delivery system sometimes causes enormous increase in the price of stamps.

Check back soon!
1