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# Cracking The AP Chemistry Exam

## Educators SR ### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 1

What element does this spectra represent?
(A) Boron
(B) Nitrogen
(C) Aluminum
(D) Phosphorus William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 2

Which peak represents the 2 s subshell?
(A) The peak at 104 $\mathrm{MJ} / \mathrm{mol}$
(B) The peak at 6.84 $\mathrm{MJ} / \mathrm{mol}$
(C) The peak at 2.29 $\mathrm{MJ} / \mathrm{mol}$
(D) The peak at 1.76 $\mathrm{MJ} / \mathrm{mol}$ William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 3

An electron from which peak would have the greatest velocity after
ejection?
(A) The peak at 104 $\mathrm{MJ} / \mathrm{mol}$
(B) The peak at 6.84 $\mathrm{MJ} / \mathrm{mol}$
(C) The peak at 4.98 $\mathrm{MJ} / \mathrm{mol}$
(D) The peak at 1.76 $\mathrm{MJ} / \mathrm{mol}$ William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 4

How many valence electrons does this atom have?
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 5 William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 5

Why does an ion of phosphorus, $\mathrm{P}^{3-}$ , have a larger radius than a neutral
atom of phosphorus?
(A) There is a greater Coulombic attraction between the nucleus and the
electrons in $\mathrm{P}^{3}$ .
(B) The core electrons in $\mathrm{P}^{3-}$ exert a weaker shielding force than those of a neutral atom.
(C) The nuclear charge is weaker in $\mathrm{P}^{3-}$ than it is in P.
(D) The electrons in $\mathrm{P}^{3-}$ have a greater Coulombic repulsion than those in the neutral atom. William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 6

Which neutral atom of the following elements would have the most
unpaired electrons?
(A) Titanium
(B) Manganese
(C) Nickel
(D) Zinc William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 7

The diagram below shows the relative atomic sizes of three different
elements from the same period. Which of the following statements must be
true?
(A) The effective nuclear charge will be the greatest in element X.
(B) The first ionization energy will be greatest in element X.
(C) The electron shielding effect will be greatest in element Z.
(D) The electronegativity value will be greatest in element Z. William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 8

The first ionization energy for a neutral atom of chlorine is 1.25 $\mathrm{MJ} / \mathrm{mol}$ and the first ionization energy for a neutral atom of argon is 1.52 $\mathrm{MJ} / \mathrm{mol}$ How would the first ionization energy value for a neutral atom of potassium compare to those values?
(A) It would be greater than both because potassium carries a greater
nuclear charge then either chlorine or argon.
(B) It would be greater than both because the size of a potassium atom is
smaller than an atom of either chlorine or argon.
(C) It would be less than both because there are more electrons in
potassium, meaning they repel each other more effectively and less
energy is needed to remove one.
(D) It would be less than both because a valence electron of potassium is
farther from the nucleus than one of either chlorine or argon. William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 9

Which of the following isoelectric species has the smallest radius?
(A) $\mathrm{S}^{2-}$
(B) $\mathrm{Cl}^{-}$
(C) Ar
(D) $\mathrm{K}^{+}$ William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 10

What is the most likely electron configuration for a sodium ion?
(A) 1$s^{2} 2 s^{2} 2 p^{5}$
(B) 1$s^{2} 2 s^{2} 2 p^{6}$
(C) 1$s^{2} 2 s^{2} 2 p^{6} 3 s^{1}$
(D) 1$s^{2} 2 s^{2} 2 p^{5} 3 s^{2}$ William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 11

Which of the following statements is true regarding sodium and chlorine?
(A) Sodium has greater electronegativity and a larger first ionization energy.
(B) Sodium has a larger first ionization energy and a larger atomic radius.
(C) Chlorine has a larger atomic radius and a greater electronegativity.
(D) Chlorine has greater electronegativity and a larger first ionization energy. William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 12

An atom of silicon in its ground state is subjected to a frequency of light
that is high enough to cause electron ejection. An electron from which
subshell of silicon would have the highest kinetic energy after ejection?
(A) 1 $\mathrm{s}$
(B) 2$p$
(C) 3$p$
(D) 4$s$ William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 13

The wavelength range for infrared radiation is $10^{-5} \mathrm{m},$ while that of
ultraviolet radiation is $10^{-8} \mathrm{m}$ . Which type of radiation has more energy, and
why?
(A) Ultraviolet has more energy because it has a higher frequency.
(B) Ultraviolet has more energy because it has a longer wavelength.
(C) Infrared has more energy because it has a lower frequency.
(D) Infrared has more energy because it has a shorter wavelength. William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 14

Which of the following nuclei has 3 more neutrons than protons?
(Remember: The number before the symbol indicates atomic mass.)
(A) 11 $\mathrm{B}$
(B) 37 $\mathrm{Cl}$
(C) 24 $\mathrm{Mg}$
(D) 70 $\mathrm{Ga}$ William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 15

Examining data obtained from mass spectrometry supports which of the
following?
(A) The common oxidation states of elements
(B) Atomic size trends within the periodic table
(C) Ionization energy trends within the periodic table
(D) The existence of isotopes William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 16

In general, do metals or nonmetals from the same period have higher
ionization energies? Why?
(A) Metals have higher ionization energies because they usually have
more protons than nonmetals.
(B) Nonmetals have higher ionization energies because they are larger
than metals and harder to ionize.
(C) Metals have higher ionization energies because there is less electron
shielding than there is in nonmetals.
(D) Nonmetals have higher ionization energies because they are closer to
having filled a complete energy level. William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 17

The ionization energies for an element are listed in the table below.
$\begin{array}{lllll}{\text { First }} & {\text { Second }} & {\text { Third }} & {\text { Fourth }} & {\text { Fifth }} \\ {8 \mathrm{eV}} & {15 \mathrm{eV}} & {80 \mathrm{eV}} & {109 \mathrm{eV}} & {141 \mathrm{eV}}\end{array}$
Based on the ionization energy table, the element is most likely to be
(A) Sodium
(B) Magnesium
(C) Aluminum
(D) Silicon William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 18

How much energy did photons of the incoming light contain?
(A) 0.50 $\mathrm{eV}$
(B) 0.80 $\mathrm{eV}$
(C) 4.5 $\mathrm{eV}$
(D) 5.0 $\mathrm{eV}$ William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 19

If the wavelength of the light were to be shortened, how would that effect
the kinetic energy of the ejected electron?
(A) A shorter wavelength would increase the kinetic energy.
(B) A shorter wavelength would decrease the kinetic energy.
(C) A shorter wavelength would stop all electron emissions completely.
(D) A shorter wavelength would have no effect on the kinetic energy of
the ejected electrons. William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 20

If the intensity of the light were to be decreased (that is, if the light is
made dimmer), how would that affect the kinetic energy of the ejected
electron?
(A) The decreased intensity would increase the kinetic energy.
(B) The decreased intensity would decrease the kinetic energy.
(C) The decreased intensity would stop all electron emissions completely.
(D) The decreased intensity would have no effect. William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 21

Which type of radiation would be most useful in examining the
dimensionality of molecules?
(A) Ultraviolet
(B) Visible
(C) Infrared
(D) Microwave William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 22

Which of the following ions would have the most unpaired electrons?
(A) $\mathrm{Mn}^{2+}$
(B) $\mathrm{Ni}^{3+}$
(C) $\mathrm{Ti}^{2+}$
(D) $\mathrm{Cr}^{6+}$ William M.

### CHAPTER 3 - Problem 23

Two alloys are shown in the diagrams below—bronze and steel. Which of
the following correctly describes the malleability of both alloys compared to
their primary metals?
(A) Bronze’s malleability would be comparable to that of copper, but
steel’s malleability would be significantly lower than that of iron.
(B) Bronze’s malleability would be significantly higher than that of
copper, but steel’s malleability would be comparable to that of iron.
(C) Both bronze and steel would have malleability values similar to
those of their primary metals.
(D) Both bronze and steel would have malleability values lower than
those of their primary metals. William M.

### CHAPTER 4 - Problem 1

Why does $\mathrm{CaF}_{2}$ have a higher melting point than $\mathrm{NH}_{3} ?$
(A) $\mathrm{CaF}_{2}$ is more massive and thus has stronger London dispersion
forces.
(B) CaF_2 exhibits network covalent bonding, which is the strongest type
of bonding.
(C) CaF_2 is smaller and exhibits greater Coulombic attractive forces.
(D) $\mathrm{CaF}_{2}$ is an ionic substance and it requires a lot of energy to break up
an ionic lattice. William M.

### CHAPTER 4 - Problem 2

Which of the following pairs of elements is most likely to create an
interstitial alloy?
(A) Titanium and copper 