# Conquering ACT Math and Science 4th

## Educators ### Problem 1

According to Hypothesis $1,$ most of the matter composing the asteroids in the belt came from:
A. Earth's moon.
B. a partially formed planet between Mars and Jupiter.
C. the same material that composes the planets that are most similar to Earth.
D. a planet outside of Earth's solar system. Liuxi S.

### Problem 2

Hypothesis 4 includes the assertion that the asteroids are made up of particles left over from a single cloud of material. This assertion explains which of the following observations?
F. Observations 1 and 2
G. Observation 4 only
H. Observations 5 and 6
J. Observation 3 only Liuxi S.

### Problem 3

Recent discoveries indicate that the gravity from Jupiter is so strong that, even given enough raw material, planets could not form around Jupiter. Which of the hypotheses is supported by this information?
A. Hypothesis 1 only
B. Hypothesis 1 and Hypothesis 3 only
C. Hypothesis 1 and Hypothesis 4 only
D. Hypothesis 1, Hypothesis 2, and Hypothesis 4 Liuxi S.

### Problem 4

Supporters of Hypothesis 2 would most likely agree that, at the time the asteroid belt formed, the planets were:
F. still in the process of forming.
G. completely formed as they are seen today.
H. no more than a cloud of material in space.
J. all the size of asteroids. Liuxi S.

### Problem 5

Which of the following assumptions regarding the asteroid belt's origins is implicit in Hypothesis $2 ?$
A. The asteroids' composition is identical to that of the Moon.
B. The asteroids have several different sources of origin.
C. The asteroid belt is older than Jupiter.
D. The asteroid belt is younger than Jupiter. Liuxi S.

### Problem 6

With which of the following statements would supporters of all four hypotheses agree?
F. There is not enough scientific data to prove the existence of asteroids.
G. Asteroids are made up of the same material as that which makes up Mars.
H. The asteroid belt lies entirely outside of the solar system.
J. The objects that are currently in an orbit between Mars and Jupiter are asteroids. Liuxi S.

### Problem 7

Consider the crust of a terrestrial planet to have a proportion of silicate to iron to nickel of 10,$000: 100: 10 .$ Based on the information in the passage, the ratio of these substances in the composition of an average asteroid is likely to be:
A. 500: 10: 1
B. 1,000: 50: 5
C. 10,000: 100: 10
D. 10,000: 500: 50 Liuxi S.

### Problem 8

According to Table $1,$ the mRNA strand shown below, when read from left to right, encodes for which amino acids?
F. Arginine, glutamic acid, methionine
G. Leucine, arginine, tryptophan
H. Leucine, serine, cysteine
J. Lysine, isoleucine, tyrosine Liuxi S.

### Problem 9

Based on the information in Table $1,$ all of the following codons encode for the same amino acid EXCEPT:
$\mathbf{A} \cdot \mathrm{AGA}$
B. AGG
$\mathbf{C} \cdot \mathrm{AGU}$
D. CGU Liuxi S.

### Problem 10

If the codon labeled A, shown below in a mRNA strand, was changed to CCA, what would be the effect on the translation of this mRNA strand?
F. The amino acid specified by codon A would be the only variation.
G. The amino acid specified by codon $A$ and the amino acids specified by the following codons would be altered.
H. The original polypeptide strand would be identical to the new polypeptide strand.
J. Translation would stop because $\mathrm{CCA}$ is a stop codon. Liuxi S.

### Problem 11

According to the passage, the correct ordering of substances used in the synthesis of proteins is which of the following?
A. DNA $\rightarrow$ RNA $\rightarrow$ protein $\rightarrow$ amino acids $\rightarrow$ polypeptides
B. DNA $\rightarrow$ tRNA $\rightarrow$ mRNA + amino acids
C. $\mathrm{RNA} \rightarrow \mathrm{DNA} \rightarrow$ tRNA $+$ amino acids
D. DNA $\rightarrow$ mRNA $\rightarrow$ tRNA + amino acids Liuxi S.

### Problem 12

A strand of mRNA must have a minimum of how many base units in order to produce a polypeptide chain 7 amino acids long, if there is no stop codon?
F. 7
G. 14
H. 21
J. 28 Liuxi S.

### Problem 13

How many amino acids are encoded by more than four different codons?
A. None
B. 1
C. 2
D. 3 Liuxi S.

### Problem 14

In Experiment 2, which of the following factors varied?
F. The temperature at which the engine was started
G. The year in which the cars were made
H. The volume of exhaust that was collected
J. The method of collecting samples Liuxi S.

### Problem 15

Do the results of Experiment 1 support the hypothesis that, at a given time and temperature, the exhaust of newer cars contains less benzene gas than the exhaust of older cars?
A. Yes; the highest percent of benzene was in the exhaust of the 1995 Model $Y$
B. Yes; both 1995 models had percents of benzene that were lower than those of either 1976 model.
C. No; the highest percent of benzene was in the exhaust of the 1976 Model Y.
D. No; both 1976 models had percents of benzene that were lower than those of either 1995 model. Liuxi S.

### Problem 16

Based on the results of the experiments and the information in the table below, cars in which of the following cities would most likely contribute the greatest amount of benzene to the atmosphere in January? (Assume that the types, numbers, and ages of cars used in each city are approximately equal.)
$$\begin{array}{|l|c|} \hline \text { City } & \begin{array}{l} \text { Average temperature } \\ \text { ( } \mathbf{F} \text { ) in January } \end{array} \\ \hline \text { Green Bay } & 22.2 \\ \hline \text { Chicago } & 28.9 \\ \hline \text { Denver } & 39.8 \\ \hline \text { Sacramento } & 67.5 \\ \hline \end{array}$$
F. Green Bay
G. Chicago
H. Denver
J. Sacramento Liuxi S.

### Problem 17

Assume that the 1976 Model $X$ car was left running for another 2 minutes at $20^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$. What would the percent benzene in the exhaust most likely be?
A. Greater than 0.4
B. Between 0.4 and 0.3
C. Between 2.4 and 2.5
D. Greater than 2.5 Liuxi S.

### Problem 18

Many states require annual testing of cars to determine the levels of benzene and other gases in their exhaust emissions. Based on the experiments, in order to determine the maximum percent of benzene found in a car's exhaust, during which of the following times after starting a car would it be best to sample the exhaust?
F. $1-3$ min
G. $5-7$ min
H. $11-13$ min
J. 13 min or longer Liuxi S.

### Problem 19

Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 differ in that in Experiment 1:
A. older cars were used.
B. the temperature was lower.
C. the starting times were adjusted.
D. more exhaust was collected. Liuxi S.

### Problem 20

According to the study, which factor most affects the presence of grass, weed, and tree pollen?
F. the method of introduction
G. the symptoms produced
H. the allergic reactions of people in the area
J. the time of year Liuxi S.

### Problem 21

According to the study, grass and tree pollen are similar to each other in that:
A. neither allergen is present from February to May.
B. all people experience the same symptoms from both allergens.
C. both experience elevated allergen counts from May to August.
D. tree and grass pollen produces identical symptoms in all sufferers. Liuxi S.

### Problem 22

Based on the results of the study, one could generalize that, compared to allergic reactions to grass pollen, allergic reactions to weed pollen:
F. are greatest from mid-August to October.
G. are greatest during the summer months.
H. remain constant throughout the year.
J. are more difficult to measure. Liuxi S.

### Problem 23

Seasonal allergies most likely result from allergens that are:
A. inhaled into the lungs.
B. ingested.
C. injected.
D. absorbed by the skin. Liuxi S.

### Problem 24

According to Table $2,$ a tree pollen count of 1,000 would be considered:
F. low.
G. moderate.
H. high.
J. very high. Liuxi S.
According to Figure $2,$ the salt/ice mixture and the frozen yogurt mixture were at the same temperature after approximately how much time had elapsed? 