Conquering ACT Math and Science 4th

Steven W. Dulan, Amy Dulan

Chapter 14

Practice Test 2 with Explanations

Educators


Problem 1

Based on information in the passage and in Table $1,$ a herbivore is:
A. a predator only.
B. both a parasite and a predator.
C. prey only.
D. both a predator and prey.

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Problem 2

According to information in the passage, the number of prey consumed in an ecosystem is dependent on:
F. the rate of change in the number of prey.
G. the total number of predators that die as a result of predation.
H. the type of parasites available in the ecosystem.
J. the number of predators present and the number of prey present.

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Problem 3

Based on Figure $1,$ during the first year, predator numbers were mostly:
A. higher than prey numbers.
B. lower than prey numbers.
C. equal to prey numbers.
D. unable to be determined.

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Problem 4

Studies have shown that a certain species of deer will eat only a specific type of plant found in the deer's natural habitat, and nothing else. Is this finding supported by the information in the passage?
F. No, because a deer is a herbivore, which means that it eats all plants.
G. No, because a deer is a carnivore and does not eat plants.
H. Yes, because a deer is a herbivore, and herbivores can be selective eaters.
J. Yes, because a deer is a prey animal, so it must use caution when eating.

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Problem 5

Based on Figure $1,$ during which year was the greatest number of prey animals available?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

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Problem 6

Which of the following statements best describes the concentration of lead in Sample $1 ?$
F. The concentration of lead in Sample 1 is above the ideal level.
G. The concentration of lead in Sample 1 may be corrosive to surfaces.
H. The concentration of lead in Sample 1 is at or below the ideal level.
J. The concentration of lead in Sample 1 is too low to be measured.

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Problem 7

An ideal alkalinity prevents pH levels from becoming too acidic. Which statement is best supported by this fact?
A. An alkalinity test is not necessary when testing drinking water.
B. Alkalinity above $500 \mathrm{mg} / \mathrm{L}$ is ideal in drinking water.
C. Ideal water samples will have a very low alkalinity (below 200 $\mathrm{mg} / \mathrm{L})$
D. A properly buffered water source will have reduced corrosive effects.

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Problem 8

The test results of Sample 1 indicate that:
F. the water from Sample 1 is probably balanced and safe.
G. the water from Sample 1 is too acidic and corrosive.
H. alkalinity levels are high enough to prevent the water from Sample 1 from becoming overly acidic.
J. the water tested in Sample 1 is hard water.

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Problem 9

Based on the test results, Sample 2 is acceptable as a water source as long as the developers:
A. are willing to accept high iron levels and hard water.
B. are willing to accept high lead levels and soft water.
C. are willing to accept high alkalinity levels and soft water.
D. treat the water to reduce its corrosive nature.

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Problem 10

Suppose a chemical could be added to treat the high iron levels in either sample. The chemical additive would be safe to use with Sample 2 but NOT Sample 1 if:
F. the chemical additive reduced pH levels by 1 .
G. the chemical additive caused an increase in hardness levels.
H. the chemical additive increased alkalinity by $100 \mathrm{mg} / \mathrm{L}$.
J. the chemical additive increased the amount of dissolved solids by $200 \mathrm{mg} / \mathrm{L}$

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Problem 11

How would one best investigate the effect of a top's mass on the precession rate if the spin rate is constant?
A. Use tops with motors permanently attached.
B. Use tops that are the same size and have the same shape, but are made from different metals.
C. Try different tops and test them in a vacuum.
D. Try tops with equal mass, but with stems of different lengths.

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Problem 12

Based on the results of Experiment 2, one can conclude that the
precession rate of a top increases as the stem:
F. decreases in length.
G. increases in length.
H. remains the same length.
J. reaches a specified spin rate.

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Problem 13

Which of the following graphs best represents the change in the
precession rate with increasing spin rate as shown in Experiment 1?

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Problem 14

Based on Table 1, if a spin rate of 900 had been recorded, the
precession rate would most likely have been closest to:
F. 0 rpm.
G. 3 rpm.
H. 5.5 rpm.
J. 12.5 rpm.

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Problem 15

If the spin rate used in Experiment 2 was 500 rpm, what is most likely the value of r in Experiment 1?
A. 3 inches
B. 5 inches
C. 7 inches
D. 10 inches

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Problem 16

If the techniques of Experiment 1 had not been perfected first, how
would this have affected Experiment 2?
F. The mass of the top would have been a factor.
G. The spin rate might not have been the same in each trial.
H. The top’s mass might have redistributed itself.
J. The top’s stem would have been removed.

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Problem 17

Which of the following best describes the major point of difference
between the scientists’ viewpoints?
A. the major contributing factor of global warming
B. the effects of global warming on the environment
C. the effects of rising sea levels
D. the major cause of rising sea levels

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Problem 18

With which of the following statements would both scientists likely agree?
F. The probability of the icecaps melting is very small.
G. Global warming contributes to rising sea levels.
H. Global warming affects sea level more than it affects any other aspect of the environment.
J. The increasing sea level is not a major concern.

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Problem 19

Which of the following statements best describes how Scientist 1 would explain why the icecaps of Antarctica are in no danger of
melting, as opposed to the icecaps of Greenland?
A. Antarctica and Greenland are both close to the equator.
B. The average temperature in Antarctica is –37°F, far below the temperatures in Greenland.
C. Antarctica and Greenland are too far away from the equator.
D. The average amount of ice that has melted is greater in Antarctica than it is in Greenland.

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Problem 20

According to Scientist 2, global warming increases the temperature of the atmosphere, thus:
F. decreasing the density of the water in the ocean.
G. reducing the amount of water in the ocean.
H. increasing the amount of water in the ocean.
J. changing the composition of icecaps.

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Problem 21

Scientist 1’s viewpoint would most likely be weakened by which of the following statements?
A. It is nearly impossible for ice above the permafrost zone to melt.
B. The effect of thermal expansion on sea level is minimal.
C. Thermal expansion has no effect on the melting of icecaps.
D. Icebergs form rapidly in Greenland, which is covered by large ice masses.

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Problem 22

Scientist 2 claims that all of the following are issues facing coastal cities EXCEPT:
F. coastal erosion.
G. increased flooding.
H. a greater number of storms.
J. changes in water quality.

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Problem 23

Based on Scientist 2’s viewpoint, even a small increase in sea level could result in:
A. thermal expansion.
B. the formation of icebergs.
C. increased air temperatures.
D. alteration of the world’s coastlines.

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Problem 24

Which of the following sets of rosebushes served as the control in Experiment 1?
F. Rosebushes grown in soil with no pesticide added
G. Rosebushes grown in soil treated with 15 ppm of Pesticide A
H. Rosebushes grown in soil treated with 15 ppm of Pesticide B
J. Rosebushes grown in soil treated with 35 ppm of Pesticide A

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Problem 25

Which of the following, if true, best explains why the pesticides
were applied to the soil as opposed to being placed directly on the
rosebushes?
A. Pesticide is always placed in the soil when dealing with aphids
and all other pests.
B. Rosebushes are not affected when pesticide is applied to the soil.
C. The experiments were testing how water levels affect growth
patterns.
D. The aphids lay their eggs in the soil, and early treatment is most
effective.

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