Conquering ACT Math and Science 4th

Steven W. Dulan, Amy Dulan

Chapter 15

Practice Test 3 with Explanations

Educators


Problem 1

Based on the trends in Figure $1,$ which of the following aqueous solutions would have the lowest boiling point?
A. $1.8 \mathrm{m}$ Glucose
B. $1.6 \mathrm{m} \mathrm{KI}$
C. $1.4 \mathrm{m} \mathrm{KI}$
D. $1.2 \mathrm{m} \mathrm{AgNO}_{3}$

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Problem 2

Consider an aqueous solution with a boiling point of $101.6^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$. According to the passage, which of the following is likely true about the aqueous solution?
F. The aqueous solution has a molality less than 0.0 .
G. The aqueous solution has a molality between 0.0 and 0.4
H. The aqueous solution has a molality between 0.8 and $1.0 .$
J. The aqueous solution has a molality greater than $1.0 .$

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Problem 3

Based on Figure $2,$ the freezing point of a solution composed of 0.95 moles of KI dissolved in $1 \mathrm{kg}$ of $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$ would be closest to which of the following?
A. $-5.6^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$
B. $-4.8^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$
$\mathbf{C} \cdot-3.6^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$
D. $-2.9^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$

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Problem 4

Based on Figure $2,$ as the mass of glucose dissolved in a given amount of solvent increases, the freezing point of the solution will:
F. increase linearly.
G. increase, but not linearly.
H. decrease linearly.
J. decrease, but not linearly.

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Problem 5

A student claimed that, per formula unit, adding $\mathrm{AgNO}_{3}$ changes the boiling point of $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$ more than adding KI. Does Figure 1 support this claim?
A. No, because at a given concentration, $\mathrm{AgNO}_{3}$ caused a smaller increase in the boiling point.
B. No, because at a given concentration, AgNO $_{3}$ caused a smaller decrease in the boiling point.
C. Yes, because at a given concentration, $\mathrm{AgNO}_{3}$ caused a greater decrease in the boiling point.
D. Yes, because at a given concentration, $\mathrm{AgNO}_{3}$ caused a greater increase in the boiling point.

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Problem 6

Which of the following criticisms might Scientist 1 logically make about Scientist 2's conclusion that the microfossils are NOT evidence of life on Mars?
F. Scientist 2 ignores the mineral data that reinforces the identification of nanobacteria.
G. Scientist 2 does not understand the means by which RNA operates within nanobacteria.
H. Scientist 2 has misidentified the origin of the meteorites.
J. Scientist 2 does not understand the importance of Antarctica in the development of the hypothesis supporting the existence of life on Mars.

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Problem 7

Scientist 2's hypothesis would be most strongly supported by the finding that sediment rocks on Mars:
A. are 17 million years old.
B. contain evidence of nanobacteria.
C. contain carbon deposits.
D. contain salinity at a level that is toxic to life.

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Problem 8

About which of the following points do the scientists agree?
F. Evidence of water has been found on Mars.
G. Electro-scanning microscopes have detected nanobacteria fossils in Martian soil.
H. A Martian meteorite has been discovered on Earth.
J. Flood-like gullies on Mars are caused by micrometeorite impacts.

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Problem 9

Which of the following is an assumption likely made by Scientist $1 ?$
A. Mars is a planet unlike any others in the solar system.
B. Martian life requires the presence of water.
C. Nanobacteria are precursors to more advanced life-forms.
D. All Martian soil must be formed by water.

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Problem 10

Which of the following observations would more strongly support Scientist 1 than Scientist $2 ?$
F. Evidence of carbon molecules on Mars
G. Evidence proving that gullies on Mars were created by micrometeorites
H. Evidence of sediment in meteorites from Mars found on Earth
J. Evidence showing bacterial remains in Martian soil samples

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Problem 11

Which of the following observations would provide evidence to support Scientist 2 's theory but NOT Scientist 1 's theory?
A. The discovery that the Moon once had surface water
B. The scientific community's decision to reclassify life-forms to include silicon-based organisms in addition to carbon-based organisms
C. Scientific data proving that nanobacteria cannot reproduce, and are, therefore not organic life-forms
D. The discovery of nanobacteria in soil sediments on Mars

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Problem 12

Suppose further study of the Antarctic meteorite revealed that it might not have originated on Mars. How would this discovery most likely affect the scientist's viewpoints, if at all?
F. It would weaken Scientist 1 's viewpoint only.
G. It would weaken Scientist 2 's viewpoint only.
H. It would strengthen both scientists ' viewpoints.
J. It would have no effect on either scientist's viewpoint.

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Problem 13

Which of the following ranks the microorganisms from those requiring a more acidic growth medium to those requiring a less acidic growth medium?
A. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus
B. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae
C. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius
D. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, Staphylococcus aureus

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Problem 14

According to Table $1,$ Escherichia coli will experience optimum growth at which of the following pH levels?
F. 4.4
G. 6.5
H. 7.8
J. 12.3

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Problem 15

Table 2 indicates that, compared to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli has an optimum growth temperature that is:
A. lower.
B. higher.
C. the same.
D. not measurable.

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Problem 16

Which set of data best supports the claim that $B$acillus acidocaldarius is more acidic than Pseudomonas aeruginosa?
F. Figure 1
G. Table 1
H. Table 2
J. Table 3

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Problem 17

Based on the passage, which of the following microorganisms requires the least amount of water to grow?
F. Spirillum
G. Pseudomonas
H. Staphylococcus
J. Halococcus

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Problem 18

In Experiment 2, which of the following factors was varied?
F. Number of roadways
G. Number of vehicles per day traveling on the roadway
H. Distance from the roadway
J. Speed limit on the roadway

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Problem 19

According to the results, which of the following would the environmentalists suggest to decrease levels of $\mathrm{CO}$ in an area?
A. Reduce speed limits on the roadways
B. Reduce the number of cars traveling on the roadways
C. Increase speed limits on the roadways
D. Change the way $\mathrm{CO}$ emissions are measured

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Problem 20

Based on the experimental results, if one compared $\mathrm{SO}_{2}$ levels near a major roadway to those in a remote forest, $\mathrm{SO}_{2}$ levels:
F. near the roadway would be higher than in the forest.
G. near the roadway would be lower than in the forest.
H. near the roadway would be the same as those in the forest.
J. would be detectable only in the forest.

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Problem 21

Motor vehicle exhaust also introduces formaldehyde into the air. If formaldehyde behaves similarly to $\mathrm{CO}$ and $\mathrm{SO}_{2}$ in the experiments, the environmentalists would hypothesize that formaldehyde levels:
A. would decrease over time.
B. would stay the same over time.
C. are higher when closer to roadways compared to farther away.
D. are lower when closer to roadways compared to farther away.

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Problem 22

According to the results obtained by the environmentalists, as the distance from the roadway increases:
F. $\mathrm{CO}$ and $\mathrm{SO}_{2}$ levels both increase.
G. $\mathrm{CO}$ and $\mathrm{SO}_{2}$ levels both decrease.
H. CO levels decrease and $\mathrm{SO}_{2}$ levels increase.
J. CO levels increase and $\mathrm{SO}_{2}$ levels decrease.

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Problem 23

A seventh road was added to the experiment. It has a speed limit of $45 \mathrm{mi} / \mathrm{hr}$ and a vehicle usage of 50,000 vehicles per day. One would hypothesize that $\frac{1}{2}$ mi downwind from this roadway CO levels are:
A. less than 107 ppb.
B. between 107 and 112 ppb.
C. between 112 and 117 ppb.
D. above 117 ppb.

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Problem 24

Based on the information presented, what is the relationship between $\mathrm{KIO}_{3}$ and reaction rate?
F. As $\mathrm{KIO}_{3}$ concentration increases, reaction rate increases only.
G. As $\mathrm{KIO}_{3}$ concentration increases, reaction rate decreases only.
H. As $\mathrm{KIO}_{3}$ concentration increases, reaction rate increases, then decreases.
J. No relationship can be determined based on the data.

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Problem 25

The students added sodium metabisulfite to the second set of beakers most likely because:
A. it would not fit in the first set of beakers.
B. it is the same temperature as distilled water.
C. it is the easiest chemical to measure.
D. it reacts with $\mathrm{KIO}_{3}$ to turn the solution blue.

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