# Applications of Newton’s Laws

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727) was an English physicist and mathematician. He is best known for his mathematical law of universal gravitation, which he published in his "Principia", and for his theories about colour and about the nature of light. He formulated an early version of the three laws of motion, which formed the foundation of classical mechanics, and is generally credited with the unification of the field of alchemy with science. Newton also made major advances in the fields of optics, and astronomy, including the theories of the rainbow and the lunar craters. He also formulated a law of cooling, made the first theoretical calculation regarding the speed of sound, and the first scientifically correct explanation of the origin of the Moon's far side. Newton, who served as President of the Royal Society, formulated much of his work as an attempt to reconcile the philosophy of science with the theology of the day. The law of universal gravitation states that every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The constant of proportionality is the gravitational constant (G) and the proportionality constant (mu) is given by the G. The force between two particles (m1 and m2) is defined as F = GMm1m2/ r2, where M is the total mass of each particle and r is the distance between them. This force is shown by the vector diagram below. The size (magnitude) of F is related to the product of the two masses and the inverse square of the distance between them. The proportionality constant (mu) is the ratio of the product of the two masses to the total mass of the system. The gravitational force between two equal masses is given by F = Gm1m2/ r2, where G is the gravitational constant. The law of gravitation states that the force between any two objects is given by F = Gm1m2/ r2, where G is a constant. The constant G is related to the gravitational constant of the universe by G = 6.67 × 10 N m2/ kg2. If the object being attracted is a point mass, then G = G (6.67 × 10 N m2/ kg2) = 7.0 × 10 N m2/ kg2. The relationship of the gravitational constant G, and the gravitational constant of the universe G, is shown by the vector diagram below. The proportionality constant (mu) is related to the product of the two masses and the inverse square of the distance between them. This proportionality constant is sometimes called the "universal gravitational constant" to distinguish it from the "gravitational constant (G)". The gravitational constant (G) is given by G = 6.67 × 10 N m/ kg. In SI units, the gravitational constant is denoted by the symbol "g" and is given by G = 6.67 × 10 N m/ kg. In cgs units, the gravitational constant is denoted by the symbol "G " and is given by G = 6.67 × 10 N m/ kg. The relationship of the universal gravitational constant G, and the gravitational constant of the universe G, is shown by the vector diagram below. The universal gravitational constant G is used to define the gravitational constant (G). In the SI system, the gravitational constant is given by G = 6.67 × 10 N m2/ kg2, where N is the symbol for newton. The relationship between the universal gravitational constant G, and the gravitational constant G, is shown by the vector diagram below. The "Newtonian" gravitational force (F) between two particles is defined as the vector sum of the gravitational force (F) between each pair of particles, where each pair of particles has a mass of m1 and m2. This vector sum of the forces is shown in the vector diagram below. The magnitude of F is equal to the product of the masses times the inverse of the square of the distance between them.