05:59

Chemistry: Introducing Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry

In a titration, a solution of $0.200 \mathrm{moldm}^{-3} \mathrm{NaOH}$ solution is added from a burette to $30.0 \mathrm{cm}^{3}$ of $0.100 \mathrm{moldm}^{-3} \mathrm{HNO}_{3}$

solution in a conical flask. Calculate the pH of the solution (Section $7.4)$ :

(a) before any NaOH is added;

(b) after addition of $5.0 \mathrm{cm}^{3}$ of the NaOH solution;

(c) after addition of $10.0 \mathrm{cm}^{3}$ of the NaOH solution;

(d) at the equivalence point;

(e) after addition of $20.0 \mathrm{cm}^{3}$ of the NaOH solution.