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Calculate the pH and the pOH of each of the following solutions at $25^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ for which the substances ionize completely:$$\begin{array}{l}{\text { (a) } 0.000259 \mathrm{M} \mathrm{HClO}_{4}} \\ {\text { (b) } 0.21 \mathrm{M} \mathrm{NaOH}} \\ {\text { (c) } 0.000071 \mathrm{M} \mathrm{Ba}(\mathrm{OH})_{2}} \\ {\text { (d) } 2.5 \mathrm{M} \mathrm{KOH}}\end{array}$$

A. $\begin{aligned} p H &=3.6 \\ p O H &=10.4 \end{aligned}$B. $p H=13.32$ $p O H=0.68$C. $p H=10.15$ $p O H=3.85$D. $\begin{aligned} p H &=14.4 \\ p O H &=-0.4 \end{aligned}$

Chemistry 102

Chapter 14

Acid-Base Equilibria

Liquids

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problem. 19 from Chapter 14 is asking us to calculate the P H and P o h of different solutions. So to answer this question is important to remember that P h plus p o. H is always equal to 14. Um, unless it's an incredibly strong acid or incredibly strong base, you're not going to see values about 14 or below. What? So with that knowledge, um, we then need to be able to know how to calculate the Ph. Ph. And to do so, we just take the negative log of the hydra Liam Islands for Ph and droopy. Ohh! We're going to take the negative log of the hydroxide ion, and then that will give us a p o. H. So depending on which solution we're talking about, we are either going to first calculate P H and P O. H. Because it depends on the ions that thesis a Lucian Associates into. So let's get started with HCL 04 And to answer this question, we are going to calculate the P H first. And the reason being is it because this, um, the solution is going to disassociate into hydrogen islands, making it an acid So we're going to first calculate the pH, and then we will calculate the P O. H. So to calculate the pH. We are going to take the negative log for me. Well, the concentration of this solution And when you go ahead and saw for that, what you will get is 3.6. So we have calculated the pH using the, um, polarity provided in the question because this will dissociate into equal parts C L 04 and Hutch ions so we can use this polarity to calculate the pH and then to calculate the pH. All we dio is subtract our value for ph from 14. Because as we can see up here, the p a crispy, which is equal to 14. So 14 minus the, um, ph must give us her p o age, and that is going to be complete. And this makes sense because the solution is an asset. It has a very low pH um, denoting that is an acidic solution. So let's move on to the next part of the question where we have point to one ah, moles per liter of sodium hydroxide so similar to the last question we should analyze which ions they're going to dissociate from solution, and in this case, it's going to be the hydroxide ion. So first we're going to have to calculate the P O. H. And then to calculate the pH. Because, um, hi geranium irons are not going to dissociate in the solution, so we must calculate p o. H first. So let's go ahead and solve for P O. H. And we do that by picking me negative log of weaker, divided hilarity. And when you do so, that gives us 0.60 great. And then now, using this, we can calculate the pH similar to what we did before. PH is going to equal rights equal 14 minus the value that we got for P o Cage. And in this case, it's going to be 13.32 And this also makes sense because sodium hydroxide is a very strong base. So on the pH scale, it's going to have a very high value, indicating that it is an acidic solution. So let's get on to part see of this question. So let's look at this solution. We have a hydroxy to hydroxide ions, prayer berry and I on. So this solution is basic because it is containing hydroxide ions. But it also has twice as many hydroxide ions as it does barium ions. So we must take that into consideration when calculating for the hydroxide ion concentration. So to account for that, we must multiply this value by two to then get the, um, value of hydroxide ions, hydroxide ions before we can calculate any further. So let's go ahead and do that. So the concentration of hydroxide ions is equal to 0.0 there 71 times two because equal to you, 0.0 142 So that is a concentration of hydroxide ions. And because we're looking at hydroxide ions, we can now calculate the p o h of this solution trying to move this thing. There you go. So we just do what we have been doing for the past few parts of this question. They're just gonna take the negative log off now, this value of this value that we calculated for the hydroxide on. So we have negative log of 0.1 14 We solved for Brax. You get the 3.85 as any P. R h rank us off for the pH. Like we've gone for the previous parts of this question, we just subtract the value that we got for P O. H from 14. In this case, back is as 10.15 Hey, and then on to the going back to part see on this also makes sense because of the pH of this solution is Hi. So it means that indicates to us that this is a very basic solution. Um, and our values are making sense. Lastly, let's move on to potassium hydroxide. We have 2.5 Miller solution, and it's a 1 to 1 ratio, so we can just go ahead and take the negative log off 2.5 to give us the p o. H. We're going to be looking at the hydroxide ion concentration because this contains hydroxide ions. So let's go ahead and calculate that. So p. Earl H. You're looking at the association of hydroxide ion. It's equal to me. Negative log of 2.2 point five, which Nick waas negative Oh point for Oh, the reason this value is negative is because potassium hydroxide as an incredibly strong base and then to calculate for pH. You do what we've been doing before, and we just subtract 14. But sorry skating. Subtract the Pio IX from 14. We can risk case. It's going to be negative value, which equally positive move it's recognizing to give us working point ploy. Um, organise value makes sense because potassium hydroxide is a base and we have a pH value of 14.4, indicating it is a very, very strong base.

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