The graph in Figure P11.4 describes the volume of distillate collected during the fractional distillation of a liquid. Answer the following questions about the process: (a) Is the sample a pure liquid or a mixture? (b) If it is a mixture:
(i) how many components are in the mixture? (ii) What are the relative ratios of the volumes in the mixture? (iii) What are their approximate boiling points?
A) Yes, Bi) 3, Bii) 2:5:3, Biii) 80C, 95C, 130C
Okay, so this is problem 11. Planned for in the chemistry, the science and textbook. Um, and this is the end of chapter 11. Okay, um and so it gives us this graph, and it asked a few questions about the graph. OK, and so the graph when we look at it, it's immediately a distant we should recognize this is a distillation. Okay, well, this is a fractional distillation of a certain like, hey, and with distillation, if you have a pure liquid, where you're going to see is that it's it's essentially you're going to reach the temperature. But that sure liquid Um yeah, vaporizes right. So the boiling point of that pure liquid, you're going to see a straight line at that boiling point because remember, during phase changes, when a liquid goes to gas space, there is no change in temperature. Okay? And you'll just see that there's an increase in the volume of that dissolute as your collecting the vapor. Okay, but in this case, we have three steps. One twos, three answers, our first pressure. Is this a mixed? Yes, absolutely. It was pure. We would just see on increased to a certain temperature and then a flat line at that, um, bad boiling point. Okay. Asses the the volume increases for that, um, that compound. Okay. And then you would see it stop home, and that would be it once you run out of a pure substance. But in this case is not pure substance. Okay, so this is a mixture. And we see that because we have three separate, um, steps, Okay. And so how many components are there? Well, I just answer that there are three. Right. Well, we see that we reach 80 degrees Celsius and we start collecting a certain volume of distillate. Okay, So that means that there is one compound where its boiling point is around 80. Okay, then we run out of that compound, and then we increase the temperature to around 95. Okay? And then that is a boiling point of the 2nd 1 and it starts to distillate out, meeting that it goes into the gas phase, and we collected as distal int. Okay. And so we have a certain volume of that. And then once we run out of that compound, we have to increase the temperature again to 1 30 Teoh vaporised that last call, Okay? And so the next question is the relative ratios of the volumes, Okay. And so we can measure the volume because the X axis is the volumes. So if this is compound one, we go from 0 to 20 milliliters of distillates. That means that this compound has 20 ml. Okay? And the volume of this A list additives. So once we start a distillate ing out compound to we're starting on 20 and we end at 70. Okay? So that doesn't mean that it has a total of 70. We just have a total of 50 right? Because the 1st 20 was from compound one and then the next 50 year from compound to right. So we're just getting the distance between here and here, okay? And finally, for a Compound three, we're going from 70 to hundreds of this is around 30 m l. Okay, So, for peace, unless right this year, the ratios of the volumes is gonna be 20 2 50 2 30 which simplifies to 2 to 5 to three. Okay. For compound 12 and three. Okay. And then it asked for the approximate boiling point. So remember the boiling points air were it flatlines? Because once we hit Haiti, we have reached the void boiling point of Compound one. And that's why we start to see the distillate coming out. And then once we hit around 95 that's when we start to see the distillate for compound to coming up. Okay on. And so for home pound one. There's no name for the compounds. Compounds. One is around 80. So it says, approximate Ryan. So 80 degrees Celsius. £1.2 is approximately 95 degrees Celsius. Okay. And compound three, I'd say around 130 degrees Celsius. Okay. And so that is how you answer number 11.4.