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Biology 2015

Sylvia S. Mader, Michael Windelspecht

Chapter 37

Neurons and Nervous Systems

Educators


Problem 1

Which type of animal has a nerve net?
a. cnidarians
b. planarians
c. sponges
d. All of these are correct

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 2

The most intelligent invertebrates are probably the
a. annelids.
b. arthropods.
c. cephalopods.
d. None of these can be regarded as intelligent.

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 3

The part of the brain that is seen only in mammals is the
a. cerebellum.
b. cerebrum.
c. neocortex.
d. olfactory bulb.

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 4

Which of these correctly describes the distribution of ions on either side of an axon when it is not conducting a nerve impulse?
a. more sodium ions ($\mathrm{Na}^{+}$) outside and fewer potassium ions ($\mathrm{K}^{+}$) inside
b. $\mathrm{K}^{+}$ outside and $\mathrm{Na}^{+}$ inside
c. charged proteins outside; $\mathrm{Na}^{+}$ and $\mathrm{K}^{+}$ inside
d. charged proteins inside
e. Both a and d are correct

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 5

When the action potential begins, sodium gates open, allowing $\mathrm{Na}^{+}$ to cross the membrane. Now the polarity changes to
a. negative outside and positive inside.
b. positive outside and negative inside.
c. There is no difference in charge between outside and inside.
d. None of these are correct.

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 6

Transmission of the nerve impulse across a synapse is accomplished by
a. the release of $\mathrm{Na}^{+}$ at the presynaptic membrane.
b. the release of neurotransmitters at the postsynaptic membrane.
c. the reception of neurotransmitters at the postsynaptic membrane.
d. Both a and c are correct.

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 7

Repolarization of an axon during an action potential is produced by
a. inward diffusion of $\mathrm{Na}^{+}$.
b. active extrusion of $\mathrm{K}^{+}$.
c. outward diffusion of $\mathrm{K}^{+}$.
d. inward active transport of $\mathrm{Na}^{+}$.

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 8

A drug that inactivates acetylcholinesterase
a. stops the release of $\mathrm{ACh}$ from presynaptic endings.
b. prevents the attachment of $\mathrm{ACh}$ to its receptor.
c. increases the ability of $\mathrm{ACh}$ to stimulate postsynaptic cells.
d. All of these are correct.

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 9

Which of these is not a specific function of the $\mathrm{CNS}$?
a. generate motor output
b. perform integration
c. regulate blood sugar
d. receive sensory input

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 10

Which of the following is not part of the spinal cord?
a. grey matter
b. dorsal horn
c. association areas
d. tracts
e. ventral horn

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 11

The largest, outermost portion of the brain in humans is the
a. cerebellum. $\quad$ c. reticular activating system.
b. cerebrum. $\quad$ d. thalamus.

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 12

The limbic system
a. includes the hippocampus and amygdala.
b. is responsible for our deepest emotions, including pleasure, rage, and fear.
c. is not responsible for reason and self-control.
d. All of these are correct.

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 13

Which of these pairs is mismatched?
a. cerebrum—thinking and memory
b. thalamus—motor and sensory centers
c. hypothalamus—internal environment regulation
d. cerebellum—motor coordination
e. medulla oblongata—fourth ventricle

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 14

A spinal nerve takes nerve impulses
a. to the $\mathrm{CNS}$.
b. away from the $\mathrm{CNS}$.
c. both to and away from the $\mathrm{CNS}$.
d. only inside the $\mathrm{CNS}$.
e. only from the cerebrum.

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 15

The autonomic system has two divisions, called the
a. $\mathrm{CNS}$ and $\mathrm{PNS}$.
b. somatic and skeletal systems.
c. efferent and afferent systems.
d. sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 16

Which of these statements about autonomic neurons is correct?
a. They are motor neurons.
b. Preganglionic neurons have cell bodies in the $\mathrm{CNS}$.
c. Postganglionic neurons innervate smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and glands.
d. All of these are correct.

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 17

Sympathetic nerve stimulation does not cause
a. the liver to release glycogen.
b. the dilation of bronchioles.
c. the gastrointestinal tract to digest food.
d. an increase in the heart rate.

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 18

Label this diagram of a reflex arc.

Rikhil M.
Numerade Educator