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Chapter 5

Chemical Bonding I

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Problem 1

What is electronegativity? What are the periodic trends in electronegativity?

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 2

Explain the difference between a pure covalent bond, a polar covalent bond, and an ionic bond.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 3

What is meant by the percent ionic character of a bond? Do any bonds have 100% ionic character?

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 4

What is a dipole moment?

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 5

What is the magnitude of the dipole moment formed by separating a proton and an electron by 100 pm? 200 pm?

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 6

What is the basic procedure for writing a covalent Lewis structure?

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 7

How do you determine the number of electrons that go into the Lewis structure of a molecule? A polyatomic ion?

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 8

What are resonance structures? What is a resonance hybrid?

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 9

Do resonance structures always contribute equally to the overall structure of a molecule? Explain.

David C.
Numerade Educator

Problem 10

What is formal charge? How is formal charge calculated? How is it helpful?

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 11

Why does the octet rule have exceptions? Give the three major categories of exceptions and an example of each.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 12

Which elements can have expanded octets? Which elements cannot have expanded octets?

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 13

What is bond energy?

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 14

Give some examples of some typical bond lengths. Which factors influence bond lengths?

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 15

Why is molecular geometry important? Cite some examples.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 16

According to VSEPR theory, what determines the geometry of a molecule?

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 17

Name and draw the five basic electron geometries, and state the number of electron groups corresponding to each. What constitutes an electron group?

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 18

Explain the difference between electron geometry and molecular geometry. Under what circumstances are they not the same?

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 19

List the correct electron and molecular geometries that correspond to each set of electron groups around the central atom of a molecule.
a. four electron groups overall; three bonding groups and one
lone pair
b. four electron groups overall; two bonding groups and two
lone pairs
c. five electron groups overall; four bonding groups and one lone
pair
d. five electron groups overall; three bonding groups and two
lone pairs
e. five electron groups overall; two bonding groups and three
lone pairs
f. six electron groups overall; five bonding groups and one
lone pair
g. six electron groups overall; four bonding groups and two
lone pairs

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 20

How do you apply VSEPR theory to predict the shape of a molecule with more than one interior atom?

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 21

How do you determine if a molecule is polar?

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 22

Why is polarity a key connection between the structure of a molecule and its properties?

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 23

Determine if a bond between each pair of atoms would be pure covalent, polar covalent, or ionic.
a. Br and Br b. C and Cl
c. C and S d. Sr and O

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 24

Determine if a bond between each pair of atoms would be pure covalent, polar covalent, or ionic.
a. C and N
b. N and S
c. K and F
d. N and N

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 25

Draw the Lewis structure for CO with an arrow representing the dipole moment. Use Figure 5.5 to estimate the percent ionic character of the CO bond.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 26

Draw the Lewis structure for BrF with an arrow representing the dipole moment. Use Figure 5.5 to estimate the percent ionic character of the BrF bond.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 27

Write the Lewis structure for each molecule.
a. PH3
b. SCl2
c. HI
d. CH4

David C.
Numerade Educator

Problem 28

Write the Lewis structure for each molecule.
a. NF3
b. HBr
c. SBr2
d. CCl4

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 29

Write the Lewis structure for each molecule.
a. SF2
b. SiH4
c. HCOOH (both O bonded to C)
d. CH3SH (C and S central)

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 30

Write the Lewis structure for each molecule.
a. CH2O
b. C2Cl4

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 31

Write the Lewis structure for each molecule or ion.
a. CI4
b. N2O
c. SiH4
d. Cl2CO

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 32

Write the Lewis structure for each molecule or ion.
a. H3COH
b. OH-
c. BrO-
d. O2 2-

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 33

Write the Lewis structure for each molecule or ion.
a. N2H2
b. N2H4
c. C2H2
d. C2H4

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 34

Write the Lewis structure for each molecule or ion.
a. H3COCH3
b. CN-
c. NO2-
d. ClO-

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 35

Write a Lewis structure that obeys the octet rule for each
molecule or ion. Include resonance structures if necessary and
assign formal charges to each atom.
a. SeO2
b. CO3 2-
c. ClO-
d. NO2-

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 36

Write a Lewis structure that obeys the octet rule for each ion. Include resonance structures if necessary and assign formal charges to each atom.
a. ClO3-
b. ClO4-
c. NO3-
d. NH4+

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 37

Use formal charge to determine which Lewis structure is better.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 38

Use formal charge to determine which Lewis structure is better.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 39

How important is this resonance structure to the overall structure of carbon dioxide? Explain.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 40

In N2O, nitrogen is the central atom and the oxygen atom is terminal. In OF2, however, oxygen is the central atom. Use formal charges to explain why.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 41

Draw the Lewis structure (including resonance structures) for the acetate ion (CH3COO-). For each resonance structure, assign formal charges to all atoms that have formal charge.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 42

Draw the Lewis structure (including resonance structures) for methyl azide (CH3N3). For each resonance structure, assign formal charges to all atoms that have formal charge.

David C.
Numerade Educator

Problem 43

Determine the formal charges of the atoms shown in red.

Zhe X.
Numerade Educator

Problem 44

Determine the formal charges of the atoms shown in red.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 45

Write the Lewis structure for each molecule (octet rule not
followed).
a. BCl3
b. NO2
c. BH3

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 46

Write the Lewis structure for each molecule (octet rule not followed).
a. BBr3
b. NO
c. ClO2

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 47

Write the Lewis structure for each ion. Include resonance structures if necessary and assign formal charges to all atoms. If necessary, expand the octet on the central atom to lower formal
charge.
a. PO4 3-
b. CN-
c. SO3 2-
d. ClO2-

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 48

Write Lewis structures for each molecule or ion. Include resonance structures if necessary and assign formal charges to all atoms. If you need to, expand the octet on the central atom to lower formal charge.
a. SO4 2-
b. HSO4 -
c. SO3
d. BrO2 -

Thomas W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 49

Write Lewis structures for each molecule or ion. Use expanded octets as necessary.
a. PF5
b. I3 -
c. SF4
d. GeF4

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 50

Write Lewis structures for each molecule or ion. Use expanded octets as necessary.
a. ClF5
b. AsF6 -
c. Cl3PO
d. IF5

AD
Ayush D.
Numerade Educator

Problem 51

List these compounds in order of increasing carbon-carbon bondstrength and in order of decreasing carbon-carbon bond length:

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 52

Which of these compounds has the stronger nitrogen-nitrogen bond? The shorter nitrogen-nitrogen bond?

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 53

A molecule with the formula AB3 has a trigonal pyramidal geometry. How many electron groups are on the central atom (A)?

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 54

A molecule with the formula AB3 has a trigonal planar geometry. How many electron groups are on the central atom?

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 55

For each molecular geometry shown here, list the number of total electron groups, the number of bonding groups, and the number of lone pairs on the central atom.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 56

For each molecular geometry shown here, list the number of total electron groups, the number of bonding groups, and the number of lone pairs on the central atom.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 57

Determine the electron geometry, molecular geometry, and idealized bond angles for each molecule. In which cases do you expect deviations from the idealized bond angle?
a. PF3
b. SBr2
c. CHCl3
d. CS2

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 58

Determine the electron geometry, molecular geometry, and idealized bond angles for each molecule. In which cases do you expect deviations from the idealized bond angle?
a. CF4
b. NF3
c. OF2
d. H2S

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 59

Which species has the smaller bond angle, H3O+ or H2O? Explain.

David C.
Numerade Educator

Problem 60

Which species has the smaller bond angle, ClO4 - or ClO3 -? Explain.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 61

Determine the molecular geometry and draw each molecule or ion using the bond conventions shown in the "Representing Molecular Geometries on Paper" section of this chapter (see Section 5.9).
a. SF4
b. CIF3
c. IF2 -
d. IBr4

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 62

Determine the molecular geometry and draw each molecule or ion, using the bond conventions shown in the "Representing Molecular Geometries on Paper" section of this chapter (see Section 5.9).
a. BrF5
b. SCl6
c. PF5
d. IF4 +

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 63

Determine the molecular geometry about each interior atom and draw each molecule. (Skeletal structure is indicated in parentheses.)
a. C2H2 (HCCH)
b. C2H4 (H2CCH2)
c. C2H6 (H3CCH3)

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 64

Determine the molecular geometry about each interior atom and draw each molecule. (Skeletal structure is indicated in parentheses.)
a. N2
b. N2H2 (HNNH)
c. N2H4 (H2NNH2)

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 65

Each ball-and-stick model incorrectly shows the electron and molecular geometry of a generic molecule. Explain what is wrong with each molecular geometry and provide the correct molecular geometry, given the number of lone pairs and bonding groups on the central atom.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 66

Each ball-and-stick model incorrectly shows the electron and molecular geometry of a generic molecule. Explain what is wrong with each molecular geometry and provide the correct molecular geometry, given the number of lone pairs and bonding groups on the central atom.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 67

Determine the geometry about each interior atom in each molecule and draw the molecule. (Skeletal structure is indicated in parentheses.)
a. CH3OH (H3COH)
b. CH3OCH3 (H3COCH3)
c. H2O2 (HOOH)

Qiao R.
Numerade Educator

Problem 68

Determine the geometry about each interior atom in each molecule and draw the molecule. (Skeletal structure is indicated in parentheses.)
a. CH3NH2 (H3CNH2)
b. CH3CO2CH3 (H3CCOOCH3 both O atoms attached to second C)
c. NH2CO2H (H2NCOOH both O atoms attached to C)

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 69

Explain why CO2 and CCl4 are both nonpolar, even though they contain polar bonds.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 70

CH3F is a polar molecule, even though the tetrahedral geometry often leads to nonpolar molecules. Explain.

Charotte M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 71

Determine whether each molecule in Exercise 57 is polar or nonpolar.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 72

Determine whether each molecule in Exercise 58 is polar or nonpolar.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 73

Determine whether each molecule or ion is polar or nonpolar.
a. ClO3 -
b. SCl2
c. SCl4
d. BrCl5

Charotte M.
Numerade Educator

Problem 74

Determine whether each molecule is polar or nonpolar.
a. SiCl4
b. CF2Cl2
c. SeF6
d. IF5

David C.
Numerade Educator

Problem 75

Each compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds. Write ionic Lewis structures for each, including the covalent structure for the ion in brackets. Write resonance structures if necessary.
a. BaCO3
b. Ca(OH)2
c. KNO3
d. LiIO

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 76

Each compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds. Write ionic Lewis structures for each, including the covalent structure for the ion in brackets. Write resonance structures if necessary.
a. RbIO2
b. NH4Cl
c. KOH
d. Sr(CN)2

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 77

Carbon ring structures are common in organic chemistry. Draw a Lewis structure for each carbon ring structure, including any necessary resonance structures.
a. C4H8
b. C4H4
c. C6H12
d. C6H6

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 78

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. The simplest amino acid is glycine (H2NCH2COOH). Draw a Lewis structure for glycine. (Hint: The central atoms in the skeletal structure are nitrogen bonded to carbon, which is bonded to another carbon. The two oxygen atoms are bonded directly to the rightmost carbon atom.)

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 79

Formic acid is partly responsible for the sting of ant bites. By mass, formic acid is 26.10% C, 4.38% H, and 69.52% O. The molar mass of formic acid is 46.02 g>mol. Find the molecular formula of formic acid and draw its Lewis structure.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 80

Diazomethane is a highly poisonous, explosive compound because it readily evolves N2. Diazomethane has the following composition by mass: 28.57% C; 4.80% H; and 66.64% N. The molar mass of diazomethane is 42.04 g>mol. Find the molecular formula of diazomethane, draw its Lewis structure, and assign formal charges to each atom. Why is diazomethane not very stable? Explain.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 81

Draw the Lewis structure for nitric acid (the hydrogen atom is attached to one of the oxygen atoms). Include all three resonance structures by alternating the double bond among the three oxygen atoms. Use formal charge to determine which of the resonance structures is most important to the structure of nitric acid.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 82

Phosgene (Cl2CO) is a poisonous gas that was used as a chemical weapon during World War I. It is a potential agent for chemical terrorism today. Draw the Lewis structure of phosgene. Include all three resonance forms by alternating the double bond among the three terminal atoms. Which resonance structure is the best?

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 83

The cyanate ion (OCN-) and the fulminate ion (CNO-) share the same three atoms but have vastly different properties. The cyanate ion is stable, while the fulminate ion is unstable and forms explosive compounds. The resonance structures of the cyanate ion were explored in Example 5.6. Draw Lewis structures for the fulminate ion-including possible resonance forms-and use formal charge to explain why the fulminate ion is less stable (and therefore more reactive) than the cyanate ion.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 84

Draw the Lewis structure for each organic compound from its condensed structural formula.
a. C3H8
b. CH3OCH3
c. CH3COCH3
d. CH3COOH
e. CH3CHO

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 85

Draw the Lewis structure for each organic compound from its condensed structural formula.
a. C2H4
b. CH3NH2
c. HCHO
d. CH3CH2OH
e. HCOOH

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 86

Use Lewis structures to explain why Br3- and I3- are stable, while F3- is not.

Thomas W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 87

Draw the Lewis structure for HCSNH2. (The carbon and nitrogen atoms are bonded together, and the sulfur atom is bonded to the carbon atom.) Label each bond in the molecule as polar or nonpolar.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 88

Draw the Lewis structure for urea, H2NCONH2, one of the compounds responsible for the smell of urine. (The central carbon atom is bonded to both nitrogen atoms and to the oxygen atom.) Does urea contain polar bonds? Which bond in urea is most polar?

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 89

Some theories of aging suggest that free radicals cause certain diseases and perhaps aging in general. As you know from the Lewis model, such molecules are not chemically stable and will quickly react with other molecules. According to some theories, free radicals may attack molecules within the cell, such as DNA, changing them and causing cancer or other diseases. Free radicals may also attack molecules on the surfaces of cells, making them appear foreign to the body's immune system. The immune system then attacks the cells and destroys them, weakening the body. Draw Lewis structures for the free radicals implicated in this theory of aging, which are given here.
a. O2-
b. O-
c. OH
d. CH3OO (unpaired electron on terminal oxygen)

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 90

Free radicals are important in many environmentally significant reactions. For example, photochemical smog-smog that results from the action of sunlight on air pollutants-forms in part by these two steps:

The product of this reaction, ozone, is a pollutant in the lower atmosphere. (Upper atmospheric ozone is a natural part of the atmosphere that protects life on Earth from ultraviolet light.) Ozone is an eye and lung irritant and also accelerates the weathering of rubber products. Rewrite the above reactions using the Lewis structure of each reactant and product. Identify the free radicals.

Thomas W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 91

A compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen is 7.743% hydrogen by mass. Draw a Lewis structure for the compound.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 92

A compound composed of only carbon and chlorine is 85.5% chlorine by mass. Draw a Lewis structure for the compound.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 93

Amino acids are biological compounds that link together to form proteins, the workhorse molecules in living organisms. The skeletal structures of several simple amino acids are shown here. For each skeletal structure, complete the Lewis structure, determine the geometry about each interior atom, and draw the molecule, using the bond conventions of Section 5.9.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 94

The genetic code is based on four different bases with the structures shown here. Assign a geometry to each interior atom in these four bases.
a. cytosine
b. adenine
c. thymine
d. guanine

David C.
Numerade Educator

Problem 95

Most vitamins can be classified either as fat soluble, which results in their tendency to accumulate in the body (so that taking too much can be harmful), or water soluble, which results in their tendency to be quickly eliminated from the body in urine. Examine the structural formulas and space-filling models of these vitamins and determine whether each one is fat soluble (mostly nonpolar) or water soluble (mostly polar).

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 96

Water alone does not easily remove grease from dishes or hands because grease is nonpolar and water is polar. The addition of soap to water, however, allows the grease to dissolve. Study the structure of sodium stearate (a soap) and describe how its structure allows it to interact with both nonpolar grease and polar water.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 97

The azide ion, N3-, is a symmetrical ion, and all of its contributing resonance structures have formal charges. Draw three important contributing structures for this ion.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 98

A 0.167-g sample of an unknown compound contains 0.00278 mol of the compound. Elemental analysis of the compound gives the following percentages by mass: 40.00% C; 6.71% H; 53.29% O. Determine the molecular formula, molar mass, and Lewis structure of the unknown compound.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 99

Use the dipole moments of HF and HCl (given at the end of the problem) together with the percent ionic character of each bond (Figure 5.5) to estimate the bond length in each molecule. How well does your estimated bond length agree with the bond length in Table 5.4?

David C.
Numerade Educator

Problem 100

One form of phosphorus exists as P4 molecules. Each P4 molecule has four equivalent P atoms, no double or triple bonds, and no expanded octets. Draw the Lewis structure for P4.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 101

A compound has the formula C8H8 and does not contain any double or triple bonds. All the carbon atoms are chemically identical, as are all the hydrogen atoms. Draw the Lewis structure for this molecule.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 102

Draw the Lewis structure for acetamide (CH3CONH2), an organic compound, and determine the geometry about each interior atom. Experiments show that the geometry about the nitrogen atom in acetamide is nearly planar. Which resonance structure can account for the planar geometry about the
nitrogen atom?

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 103

Use VSEPR to predict the geometry (including bond angles) about each interior atom of methyl azide (CH3N3) and draw the molecule. Would you expect the bond angle between the two interior nitrogen atoms to be the same or different? Would you expect the two nitrogen-nitrogen bond lengths to be the same or different?

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 104

In the very first chapter of this book, we described the scientific approach and put a special emphasis on scientific models or theories. In this chapter, we looked carefully at the Lewis model of chemical bonding. Why is this theory successful? What are some of the limitations of the theory?

Thomas W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 105

Which statement best captures the fundamental idea behind VSEPR theory? Explain what is wrong with the statements you do not choose.
a. The angle between two or more bonds is determined primarily by the repulsions between the electrons within those bonds and other (lone pair) electrons on the central atom of a molecule. Each of these electron groups (bonding electrons or lone pair electrons) lowers its potential energy by maximizing its separation from other electron groups, thus determining the geometry of the molecule.
b. The angle between two or more bonds is determined primarily by the repulsions between the electrons within those bonds. Each of these bonding electrons lowers its potential energy by maximizing its separation from other electron groups, thus determining the geometry of the molecule.
c. The geometry of a molecule is determined by the shapes of the overlapping orbitals that form the chemical bonds. Therefore, to determine the geometry of a molecule, you must determine the shapes of the orbitals involved in bonding.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 106

Suppose that a molecule has four bonding groups and one lone pair on the central atom. Suppose further that the molecule is confined to two dimensions (this is a purely hypothetical assumption for the sake of understanding the principles behind VSEPR theory). Draw the molecule and estimate the bond angles.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 107

Have each member of your group represent an atom of a metal or an atom of a nonmetal. Each group member holds a coin to represent an electron. Which group members are most reluctant to give up their electrons? Which group members are most willing to give up their electrons? Determine which kind of bond could form between each pair of group members. Tabulate your results.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 108

Spend a few minutes reviewing the Lewis symbols for the atoms H through Ne. Form a circle and have each group member ask the group member on his or her right to draw the Lewis symbol for a specific atom. Keep going around until each group member can write all the Lewis dot symbols for the atoms H through Ne. Determine the formal charge for each symbol. In a complete sentence or two, describe why the formal charges are all the same.

David C.
Numerade Educator

Problem 109

Draw the Lewis symbols for the atoms Al and O. Use the Lewis model to determine the formula for the compound that forms from these two atoms.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 110

Draft a list of step-by-step instructions for writing the correct Lewis structure for any molecule or polyatomic ion.

Thomas W.
Numerade Educator

Problem 111

Pass a piece of paper around the group and ask each group member in turn to perform the next step in the process of determining a correct Lewis structure (including formal charges on all atoms and resonance structures, if appropriate) for the following molecules and ions: N2H4, CCl4, CO3 2-, and NH4+.

Keenan M.
University of Miami

Problem 112

In complete sentences, describe why someone might expect the bond angles in methane (CH4) to be 90 degrees, although the bonds are actually 109.5 degrees.

Wilson M.
The University of Alabama

Problem 113

At least two different numbers of electron groups can result in a linear molecule. What are they? What are the numbers of bonding groups and lone pairs in each case? Provide an example of a linear molecule in each case.

Ronald P.
Numerade Educator

Problem 114

Have each member of your group select one of the molecules and complete steps a-d. Have members present their results to the rest of the group, explaining the reasoning they used to determine their answers.

a. Draw the Lewis structure.
b. Determine the molecular geometry and draw it accurately.
c. Indicate the polarity of any polar bonds within the structure.
d. Classify the molecule as polar or nonpolar.

David C.
Numerade Educator

Problem 115

The VSEPR model is useful in predicting bond angles for many compounds. However, as we have seen, other factors (such as type of bond and atomic radii) may also influence bond angles. Consider that data for bond angles in related species in the tables and answer the questions.
a. Draw Lewis structures for all of the species in the Bond Angles in NO2 and Associated Ions Table.
b. Use the Lewis structures from part (a) to explain the observed bond angles in NO2 and its associated ions.
c. Draw Lewis structures for all of the species in the Bond Angles in PX3 Compounds Table.
d. Make your own table showing the atomic radii of H, F, Cl, and I.
e. Use your answers to parts (c) and (d) to explain the observed bond angles in PH3, PF3, PCl3, and PI3.

Keenan M.
University of Miami